ARA King Air: contacts Jorgen Jensen, Jorg Hacker, Steve Siems and John Gras.

Our plan is to bring the Airborne Research Australia (ARA) King Air to ACE-Asia. The aircraft will be jointly instrumented by CSIRO and ARA, see the attached sensor list. The total weight of the Australian instrumentation is less than 250 kg, and this leaves 250 kg of additional payload capacity. We invite collaborators to utilise this facility for collaborative research.

At present our plans are to fly over the ocean south of Japan. Discussions are also underway with the Chinese Academy of Sciences to do joint measurements and to obtain permission to fly over the main loess source areas in China.

Funding for the King Air participation in ACE-Asia is only partially secured. The total cost of bringing the King Air to ACE-Asia is about $US 300k, which includes 60 flight hours out in the field experiment area. This should be sufficient for 12 flights of 5 hours duration. All CSIRO and ARA data will be provided to collaborators, and an extensive analysis package will also be distributed.

The current funding situation is:

  1. Australian research Council: Siems, Hacker, Jensen, Huebert and Gras. Aerosol processing in frontal clouds and in marine strato-cumulus.
    Status: Approved.

  2. CSIRO: Jensen and Gras:
    Aerosol processing in frontal clouds and in marine strato-cumulus.
    Status: Application due in April 2000.

A number of other researchers have expressed interest in instrumenting the King Air for specific purposes, and funding proposals are currently being prepared. It will be necessary for these collaborators to contribute to the total cost of the King Air participation. Assuming that item (b) is funded, an additional $US 160k will still be required to ensure the King Air participation.

  1. APEX, Japan: Nakajima and co-workers.
    In-situ validation of remote sensing instruments on a Japanese Island. Japanese equipment to be flown include microwave radiometer, visible to near-IR spectrometer, short-wave spectral radiometer, low supersaturation (0.01-2%) CCN spectrometer, sulfate sampler, and trace-gas samplers for SO2, NOx and NOy.

  2. UK: Choularton and Bower.
    Up- and down-stream measurements of cloud, aerosol and trace gases at Cheju Island.
    The King Air will provide measurements through the depth of the boundary layer and in the free troposphere immediately above.

  3. USA: Hudson.
    CCN spectra and related aerosol properties.

  4. USA: Twohy.
    Cloud drop concentration, condensed water content, residual CCN spectra (DRI), residual size distribution, inorganic carbon, elemental carbon, organic carbon using electron microscopy and evolved gas analysis.

The following aspects depend on obtaining permission to fly and measure in China:

  1. USA: Huebert.
    Total aerosol sampling.

  2. France: Martin and co-workers.
    Trace gas measurements, including ozone.

  3. Taiwan:
    Speciated hydrocarbon flask sampling.

These objectives are very wide ranging, and it may be that various measurement packages will only be flown on specific missions, e.g. some packages only in China, others only over the ocean.

Measurements in marine strato-cumulus are planned as horizontal legs above cloud, in clouds and below clouds, such that both the boundary layer and the free troposphere are sampled. Flights in frontal clouds are envisaged as having the King Air as a cloud penetration aircraft, and having the

NCAR C-130 sampling the large-scale clear-air environment. Drop sondes are highly desirable for

describing the vertical properties of the clear-air environment.

The measurements over China will focus on dust storms near the main loess producing regions. This will allow for the measurement of mineral dust particles before they move over the main industrial centers in China, Korea and Japan. As such they may significantly help in determining the changes in air-mass aerosol and trace-gas content as air moves from the dry continental regions out over the Pacific Ocean. Altitude profiles of aerosol and trace gas properties are planned for the Chinese flights.

Planned King Air standard instrumentation:

Static and differential pressure (Paroscientific and Rosemount)
Attack and sideslip flow angles (Rosemount)
Temperature (Rosemount and reverse flow)
Dewpoint temperature (CSIRO)
Liquid water content (CSIRO King)
Isokinetic inlet (CSIRO)
Elemental carbon (filter)
Giant nuclei (impactor)
CCN spectrometer (CSIRO continuous thermal gradient)
Fine particle size distribution (Mobility analyser)
Aerosol particle size distribution (PMS ASASP)
Cloud droplet size distribution (PMS FSSP)
Precipitation particle habit and size distribution (PMS 2D-C)
Nephelometers (Radiance Research, dry and humidified)
Remote temperature (Barnes PRT-5)
Short wave radiation (Eppley, up and down facing)
Long wave radiation (Eppley, up and down facing)
Aircraft position, attitude, and speed (Honeywell INS and Trimble TANS GPS)

For further information on the ARA King Air, see

Other aircraft platforms: ARA Grob G109B, Cessna 404 and Grob Egrett.

No current plans exist for the utilisation of these three aircraft in ACE-Asia, but they are available at very economical rates. Information on Airborne Research Australia can be found on

The Grob G109B is a powered glider capable of of carrying standard meteorological sensors (pressure, temperature, wind, humidity, solar and terrestrial radiation). In addition to this, it can carry more than 60 kg of other instruments. A basic deployment including 50 flying hours costs about $US 30k. For further information, see

The Cessna 404 is capable of 10 hours endurance and can carry a payload of 600 kg in addition to its standard meteorological package. A basic deployment of 50 hours mission time costs about $US 90k. Further information is available on

The Grob Egrett is an ideal aircraft for high altitude work. The cost of a basic deployment with 50 hours mission time is about $US 120k. See