Report on the ACE-Asia Science Team Meeting

Cheju Island, Korea, 10-12 November 1998

21 December 1998


We had an extremely productive meeting on Cheju Island, Korea. As the report below notes, we made real progress on defining the four components of ACE-Asia, as well as who will take what roles in preparing Science and Implementation Plans for three of them. In part because of the reorganization of IGAC, the direct forcing component is still the least well-defined.

The meeting opened with welcoming speeches by Young-Joon Kim (Chair of the Korea ACE- Asia Committee), Mr. Sung-Euii Moon (Administrator of the Korea Meteorological Administration, KMA), and Mr. Sung-Gil Hong (Director-General of the Meteorological Research Institute (METRI) of the KMA). The fact that two of Korea's highest officials in agencies devoted to atmospheric research elected to come to Cheju and open our meeting is an indication of the commitment which Korea is making to ACE-Asia. Their insightful remarks set a very positive tone for the meeting. The Korea ACE-Asia Committee did an excellent job of arranging for a productive meeting, and deserves our sincere thanks and congratulations for a job well-done.

A. Activity Committee Reports

We heard IGAC Activity Committee reports from ACAPS (Bates), APARE (Arimoto), ACI (Choularton), MAGE (Huebert), and SUTA (Bates). No representative of DARF or GIM was present. Each activity report emphasized the scientific questions which that Activity Committee wants to answer, and the ways in which ACE-Asia could serve as a vehicle for doing so. APARE has met again since the Seattle CACGP meeting, largely to plan their participation in the TRACE-P campaign, which NASA-GTE is organizing in the spring of 2001. Several TRACE-P APARE surface sites will mostly have measurements of CO, O3, and NMHC's, to which we may wish to add aerosol and radiation measurements that would support ACE-Asia objectives.

B. National Reports and Plans

We heard national status reports from nine (9) countries. Several were quite encouraging that funds were either committed or likely for support of ACE-Asia activities.

  1. Korea: YJ Kim lead the Korea report. He spoke of surface sites (some of which have been operating since 1991), airborne work (Piper Chieftain), shipborne measurements, and a RADM- type model. Young-Sin Chun (METRI) talked about their 85 stations and the GAW station at Anmyondo. They launch radiosondes twice a day from the Kosan site on Cheju Island. Yong-Pyo Kim noted that METRI is running an observation site at Qingdao in China and that they will have another in the Yellow Sea west of Korea by 1999. Gi-Hoon Hong (KORDI) talked about marine biogeochemical work including the Atmospheric Inputs to the Northeast Asian Marginal Seas (AIMS). Among other things, they have found that coarse-particle nitrate increases several- fold during Kosa events.

  3. Japan: Kimitaka Kawamura talked about Japanese plans. Their committee has been expanded. The NASDA G-II will be used to study biomass aerosols, but it may work mostly in southern Asia during the burning season. There may be some flexibility at JAMSTEC about when the R/V MIRAI is docked for its annual maintenance (usually in April), so that they may be able to make measurements in March/April of 2001 while the ships and aircraft from other countries are doing their intensive observations. Mitsuo Uematsu has received a substantial grant, part of which will support ACE-Asia observations. There is a possibility that increased funding may be available in a year or two from the Frontiers Program for the kinds of observations we have described. Regular measurements at the Chichi-jima site are being restarted, and sites on Midway and Oahu may be activated as well. The 3000 m site on Mt. Norikura is now useable, but snow may prevent access until late in the spring.

  5. China: No Chinese representative was able to get a visa in time to attend the meeting, but a group convened by Shi Guangyu faxed a document entitled "Chinese Plans for ACE-Asia," that Yuan Gao presented to the group. They propose to continue long-term observations of aerosols at Beijing, Anhui, and Lhasa and to add several new field sites for measuring BC and chemical and physical characteristics of particles in southwestern China. They also plan to establish a regional database, work on satellite retrievals of aerosol properties, and undertake the development of several types of aerosol models. The working group includes members from the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Peking University, the National Research Center for Marine Environment Forecasts, the Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), and the China Meteorological Administration (CMA).

  6. [Subsequent discussions during a visit by Barry Huebert to Beijing confirmed that additional scientists who have expressed interest in participating {from Ocean University of Qingdao, the Qingdao Institute of Oceanography, Nanking University of Science and Technology, and the Xi'an State Key Laboratory for Loess and Quaternary Geology (SKLLQG)} will be welcomed as members of this working group. Mingxing Wang will serve as the Chair of China's ACE-Asia National Committee. The potential looks bright for at least modest funding for Chinese investigators: the IAP has already committed some support and there is a good chance that NSFC and CAS may fund some investigators. A conversation with Prof. Zou Jingmeng was also encouraging: the CMA may become involved in several ways.]

  7. USA: Barry Huebert reported that the NSF has laid out a schedule for their consideration of funding to ACE-Asia. They need to have a reviewable Overview Proposal by 4/99, on the basis of which they will decide what resources to commit. If they do elect to fund part of the US effort, they will request proposals from potential PIs in the fall of 1999, so that successful proposers will be informed in the summer of 2000 about funding for a spring 2001 campaign. [The Survey and Evolution Campaign S&IP will be written in such a way that it can be submitted with a cover letter describing the part US investigators wish to do to fulfill this request for a proposal by 4/99.] Tim Bates discussed the likelihood of getting NOAA support for a ship. A couple of offices in NASA may join the effort for modeling and (post-2001) direct forcing observations.

  9. Australia: John Gras described aerosol measurements that ANSTO is now supporting and other possible modes of participation. Steve Siems outlined the capabilities of the ARA Kingair and the Grob Egret, both of which would require substantial non-Australian funding to participate. The Grob is a particularly inexpensive high-altitude platform, with half the payload of the ER-2 but a vastly smaller cost: The total estimated cost for it to participate with quite a few flights near Asia would be in the neighborhood of AU$500K. [Good news: just after the meeting, Steve was notified that his proposal to bring the ARA Kingair to ACE-Asia was successful.]

  11. France: Daniel Martin discussed a wide range of interests by French investigators, from modeling to measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties, with an emphasis on NMHC and BC measurements. They are planning to build a very versatile and portable package of instruments that could fly on a leased Chinese aircraft.

  13. UK: Tom Choularton described an ambitious plan for experiments that hopefully will include the UK C-130. This includes participation in clear lagrangians in 2001 and cloudy experiments in 2003. By 2003 it is expected that the aircraft will have a single particle MS system. A hill cloud experiment is also proposed. Modelling studies of aerosol evolution in both cloudy and clear air conditions are expected to be performed in support of the development of parameterisations for inclusion in Global Climate Models. There is the potential that support may be derived from both NERC's polluted troposphere program and the Dept. of Environment, Transportation, and Regions.

  15. Canada: Kevin Strawbridge talked about the capabilities of Canada's CV-580 and Twin Otter, either of which would probably require some funding from sources outside Canada. He also described a lidar system that might be located at a ground site such as the Kosan site.

  17. Netherlands: Harry ten Brink outlined coordinated measurements with partners at Peking University. They would measure both NH3 and NH4NO3 with a steam-collection system having a very rapid response time.

C. Implementing the Four Components of ACE-Asia

The majority of the meeting time was spent discussing the first three components and what needs to be done to write a S&IP for each.

C.1 Network Time-Series Observations

Jan 2000 to When? 2004?
Aerosol Properties and Optical Depth
Common Measurements Essential

Rich Arimoto (New Mexico State University) has agreed to take the lead in preparing a science and implementation plan for an ACE-Asia ground station network together with M. Uematsu (University of Tokyo), head of the APARE activity. The network observations would begin as close as possible to January of 2000 and run for at least three years.

The ground station studies will be the background for the ACE-Asia, providing information on spatial variability in aerosol chemical, physical and radiative properties and on seasonal and longer-term trends in those properties. The network datasets will be critical for planning the ACE Asia intensive investigations and for putting those results in a broader context. Two types of stations for the network are envisioned: basic and enhanced. The basic stations will be outfitted with a more limited set of instruments (including an IMPROVE-type aerosol sampler and various instruments for optical and radiative studies) compared with the enhanced stations, and the basic stations typically will operate at a lower sampling frequency than the enhanced ones. A lidar network will also be formed, to coordinate the operations of numerous lidars throughout Asia. It will arrange for occasional regular observations on a common time schedule throughout the year, as well as intensive operations during the springtime dust period. By employing common data formats and reporting mechanisms, our goal is to also use the lidar network observations to identify targets for in situ sampling during the survey and evolution campaign.

In addition to their contributions for ACE-Asia, the measurements to be made at the ACE-Asia stations will complement ground-based studies being undertaken for the China Metro-Agro Plex experiment (China MAP) and for the Transport and Chemistry Experiment-Pacific (TRACE-P). To the greatest extent possible, resources will be shared among the three programs, with coordination facilitated by APARE. The overall operating plan for the network is for the science teams from the various participating countries to purchase the sampling equipment and as much as possible to conduct the analyses internally. Quality control and quality assurance will be coordinated through ACE-Asia and APARE. Support for instrumentation and analyses would be requested for situations in which obvious scientific gaps exist or to pursue areas of research that could make use of the network infrastructure.

C.1.a. Scientific issues:

C.1.b. Strategies: C.1.c. Resources needed: C.2. Survey and Evolution Campaign

This campaign would take place in the Spring (March & April) of 2001, with ACAPS and MAGE taking the lead. Huebert and Bates will draft first effort at Science and Implementation Plan, perhaps with the assistance of a small group at a writing workshop. This S&IP needs to be completed by April of 1999, to be used as a part of proposals to US-NSF and other agenices in many countries. This campaign would be in the field simultaneously with NASA's TRACE-P two-aircraft campaign. To the extent possible, we will collaborate with them.

C.2.a. Scientific issues to be addressed:

C.2.b. Strategies to be employed: C.2.c. Supporting information and resources needed: C.3. Cloud-Aerosol Campaign

Tom Choularton, Dean Hegg, and ACI are taking the lead on this component. They envision some observations in 2001 with the Survey and Evolution intensive, and a more exclusively cloud-oriented campaign in either 2002 or 2003.

C.3.a. Scientific issues:

C.3.b. Strategies: C.3.c. Resources needed: C.4. Direct Radiative Effect Campaign

The timing of this intensive campaign is unclear. It would focus on both direct forcing and satellite retrieval validation experiments. Column closure would be one of the primary experimental strategies employed. The SUTA group has indicated they would like to wait until a spaceborne lidar has been launched to do their experiment. SUTA & DARF would take the lead, assuming that DARF is reactivated with a new Convenor and assembles an active committee.

D. Working Groups

The only way a large collaborative experiment can be successful is if the observations at all the sites and on each platform are comparable with one another. For example, spatial patterns will be useless unless we can be assured that they are the result of real geophysical differences, rather than slight differences in observational techniques, sampling and inlet systems, or analytical methods. Temporal changes will teach us nothing if we suspect that calibrations have drifted over time.

For these reasons, it is necessary to establish protocols for the various types of measurements that will be made. Of course, each group of specialists should create their own protocols, so we have created Working Groups to coordinate twelve aspects of ACE-Asia. In some cases it is to standardize measurements, in others to select sites or arrange for meteorological support. All Working Groups are open to anyone who wishes to actively participate. Each will have an email alias created by JOSS at UCAR, so that it will be easy to send comments to everyone in any group. JOSS will announce shortly a mechanism for adding your name to a working group list. When you do so, be certain to inform the Leader of the group of your interest and clarify what you are willing to do for the group.

These twelve Working Groups will define the details of how ACE-Asia will work. As of the Cheju meeting, these are the groups and their charges:

WG1. Network Sites - Richard Arimoto (Lead), W Keene, BJ Huebert, Y Gao, J Gras, N Takeuchi, M Kasahara, T Cahill, K Perry, Qin Yu, YP Kim, I Sokolik, Tang Ji, T Murayama, Lin, K Kawamura, J Anderson, P Chazette, H Cachier

Survey existing surface measurement sites. Select a handful of sites for intensive measurements. Identify an inexpensive common sampler to be used at even the most basic sites. Establish protocols for operation of common samplers.

WG2. CN and Physical Sizing - Richard Flagan (Lead), P Hobbs, A Clarke, D Covert, T Bates, H. Jonsson, Y Ishizaka, KW Lee, T Choularton

Arrange for calibration workshops in each country and before each intensive for CN counters and sizing instruments. Establish protocols for calibrations, size ranges, and formatting of data to make outputs comparable.

WG3. Chemical Sizing (including Electron Microscopy and On-line Measurements) - Barry Huebert (Lead), T Cahill, K Perry, P Quinn, W Keene, J Anderson, L Russell, R Flagan, YJ Kim, M Kasahara, T Choularton

Demonstrate the comparability of cascade impactors, other systems for measuring composition vs size, and PM samplers through intercomparisons or literature work, as needed. Assess inlet systems used on network chemical samplers for size discrimination and make recommendations about common inlets.

WG4. CCN - John Gras (Lead), Grace, A Clarke, D Covert, T Bates, R Flagan, P Hobbs, Y Ishizaka, YS Chun, J Hudson, T Choularton

Assess the comparability of cloud condensation nuclei counters and intercompare if necessary. Specify common supersaturations for most devices.

WG5. Organics - Kimitaka Kawamura and Tom Cahill (Co-Leads), J Seinfeld, T Bates, Hu Ming, W Keene, Ishizaka, Zhu

Evaluate the various methods being used for measuring carbonaceous material. Propose common pre-combustion temperatures, collection media, and analytical schemes. Assess the comparability of the variety of methods being used.

WG6. Anions and Cations - Patricia Quinn (Lead), W Keene, BJ Huebert, L Husain, H ten Brink, G Lee, Y Kim, Hu Ming, Y Ishizaka, N Takeuchi, JC Choi

Oversee analytical laboratory operations (for filters and impaction substrates) and assess their comparability. Conduct inter-laboratory comparison exercises using spiked media.

WG7. Reactive and Precursor Gases - JH Lee (Lead), W Keene, D Thornton, GW Lee, T Bates, T Choularton, K Kawamura, D Martin, R Flagan, H ten Brink

Oversee the measurements of SO2, DMS, NH3, NOx, O3, and other gases that can either form aerosols or impact the oxidative environment in which aerosols are formed and modified. This may involve the establishment of calibration protocols or intercomparison experiments as needed, to maximize the comparability of these gas measurements between sites and platforms.

WG8. Mineral Dust (including trace elements and radionucleotides) - Jim Anderson and Rich Arimoto (Co-Leads), M Uematsu, L Husain, Y Gao, MX Wang, Y Kim, P Quinn

Evaluate methods being used to measure mineral dust, trace elements, and radionucleotides. Recommend common protocols and methods to maximize the comparability of measurements between sites. Conduct intercomparison experiments if necessary to ensure that data from different sites and platforms are comparable.

WG9. Optical Properties (In-situ) - Dave Covert (Lead), JY Kim, I Sokolik, YJ Kim, T Nakajima, T Murayama, Holler, J Ogren, P Chazette, C Liousse

Assess the methods used to measure scattering and absorption by aerosols. Recommend wavelengths, relative humidities, and other parameters for these measurements so that they can usefully be compared between sites and platforms. Formulate methods to establish the equivalence between the various methods for measuring absorption and elemental carbon. Make recommendations for calibration methods.

WG10. Radiation and Satellites - Teruyuki Nakajima (Lead), P Durkee, M Grace, Mas Jeitai, D Lu, Li Fang, P Hobbs, HM Cho, M Kasahara, I Sokolik, SC Tsay, N Takeuchi, L Russell, R Holler

Identify wavelengths and methods that can most adequately describe the radiative fluxes we seek to measure and model. Assess the comparability of measurement methods and propose calibrations and intercomparisons as needed. Identify satellites that can be used in radiative transfer experiments and propose means by which surface and airborne measurements can be made complimentary to satellite observations.

WG11. Lidar - Nobuko Takeuchi (Lead), T Murayama, K Strawbridge, JH Lee, SC Yoon, Shi

Assess the range of lidars that could be used in ACE-Asia. Identify common sampling times, methods, and data protocols, so that during both intensive observation periods and long-term network operations the most complete picture of backscattering in the troposphere can be assembled. Propose methods for deriving comparable parameters from different types of lidars, using intercomparisons or other strategies. Design methods for use of lidar data in experiment planning during intensives.

WG12. Meteorology - Jenny Moody, J Merrill S Siems, K Suhre, Numaguchi, T Choularton, HM Cho, YS Chun

Oversee the provision of meteorological information for planning, field operations, and post-mission data analysis. Identify the types of data required and assist in designing the systems for making meteorological data available to other participants in ACE-Asia.

E. Schedule

Early May, 1999 - SSC Meeting. Place TBD

***(Should this be moved close to the First Asian Aerosol conference being organized by Ishizaka in Nagoya, 27-29 July 99?)***

At this meeting we will (hopefully) complete work on the first three S&IP's and update the status of the planning in each country. We should also be able to lay out the form of the S&IP for the Direct Forcing and Satellite Validation component. We will hear from the working groups about the establishment of sampling protocols, calibrations, and other measures to ensure comparability of observations, and resolve any remaining issues they may raise. (Immediately after this meeting groups involved in network operations will have to take action on equipment purchases, intercomparisons, etc. to be making measurements by early 2000)

Nov 99 - Science Team Meeting (preferably in Asia - is China a possible host?) By this time the Network, Survey/Evolution, and Cloud/Aerosol S&IPs should be in final form. We hope to know enough then about levels of support in various countries to begin more realistic planning for implementation. This will also be the last meeting before network operations begin, so it will be very important to have as many of the network groups represented as possible. This is critical so that everyone can clarify, in person, exactly what degree of compliance with protocols they can achieve. We will also confirm what extra instruments will be located at each surface site. PIs should arrange to visit sites where their equipment will be located.

Jan 2000 - Survey of potential Operations Center sites During this survey a small group will evaluate possible sites for basing the aircraft and the Operations Center. Their recommendations will be brought to the SSC meeting shortly thereafter.

Spring 2000 - SSC Meeting

We will assess the network operations that will be underway by then and start composing the Operations Plan for the Spring 2001 IFO.

Oct/Nov 2000 - Science Team Meeting, near Ops Center site Ideally this would be the best-attended meeting, with nearly every group represented. This is the meeting at which we agree, face-to-face, on just what each group will be responsible for and who will do what, where, and when during the Survey and Evolution intensive field operations (IFO) in the spring of 2001.

Mar/Apr 2001 - Survey and Evolution IFO

This campaign will focus on the evolution of aerosols with time as well as surveying their nature and effects with altitude and location. It will include clear-air Lagrangian experiments, vertical profiles (in satellite scenes where possible), and ship observations at a variety of distances from land. A hill cap cloud study and some preliminary work on the aerosol/cloud study may also be done.

Spring 2002 or 2003 - Cloud Aerosol IFO

F. Visits to Cheju Sampling Sites

The afternoon of the 12th we visited the Kosan site on the west coast of Cheju Island and a site at the 1100 m level. The Kosan site in very impressive. It has excellent fetch, since both southerly and northwesterly monsoonal winds come directly off the water without encountering local sources before reaching the sampling site. It has several vans that contain instrumentation, with a small amount of space in one that may be available to visitors. It also has quite a bit of open space where additional containers could be located. The balloon launch facility is at the top of the hill overlooking the vans below it; frequent high winds at Kosan made it necessary to put all the sampling facilities at a lower level. We might be able to erect a tower of about 10 m height to get samplers above any influence from the soil of the site. The Kosan site might well be one of the most ideal intensive surface sites in many ways.

The 1100 m site is less attractive. The access is more difficult; there are not obvious locations for placing additional lab vans; and it is immediately adjacent to a military communications facility that might sometimes cause interferences. There may still be some ways to use the site, however.

G. Conclusions

All in all, this was an extremely productive meeting. Our Korean hosts created an environment that was conducive to getting things done and facilitated our work wonderfully. It is now much clearer what the path is to making ACE-Asia a highly successful experiment.


John Gras
Division of Atmospheric CSIRO

Steven Siems
Department of Mathmatics Monash University

Wlodek Zahorowski

Kevin Strawbridge
Environment Canada

Daniel Martin
Laboratoire mixte CNRS-CEA

Eric Hamonou
Laboratoire mixte CNRS-CEA

Palrick Chacette
Laboratoire mixte CNRS-CEA

Tae-Joon Song
Laboratoire mixte CNRS-CEA

Mikio Kasahara
Kyoto University

Kimitaka Kawamura
Hokkaido University

Nobuo Takeuchi
Chiba University

Toshiyuki Murayama
Tokyo University of Mercantile Marine

Ha-Man Cho, Director, Applied Meteorology Research Lab.
Meteorological Research Institute

Jae-Cheon Choi
Meteorological Research Institute

Young-Sin Chun
Meteorological Research Institute

Gi-Hoon Hong
Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute

Sung-Gil Hong, Director-General
Meteorological Research Institute

Soo-Young Joo, Director General
National Institute of Environmental Research

Chang-Hee Kang
Cheju National University

Ji-Young Kim
Meteorological Research Institute

Young-Joon Kim
Kwangju Institute of Science & Technology (KJIST)

Yong-Pyo Kim
Korea Institute of Science Technology

Won-Tae Kwon
Forecast Research Lab, Meteorological Research Institute

Gang-Woong Lee
Hankook University of Foreign Studies

Jai-Hoon Lee
Kwangju Institute of Science & Technology (KJIST)

Kyoo-won(Ken) Lee
Kwangju Institute of Science & Technology (KJIST)

Mee-Hye Lee
Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute

Sung-Euii Moon, Administrator
Korea Meteorological Administration

Jai-Ho Oh, Director, Forecast Research Lab.
Meteorological Research Institute

Il-Soo Park
National Institute Environmental Research

Soon-Chang Yoon
Seoul National University

Harry M. Ten Brink
Netherlands Energy Research Foundation

Keith N. Bower
University of Manchester

Tomas Choularton
University of Manchester

Anne-Marie Schmoltner, Program Manager for Atmospheric Chemistry
National Science Foundation

Barry J. Huebert
University of Hawaii

Brigitte Baeuerle

David S. Covert
University of Washington

Karyn Sawyer, Director

Kevin Perry
University of California

Irina N. Sokolik
University of Colorado

James Hudson
Desert Research Institute, University Of Nevada

Jim Anderson
Arizona State University

Lynn M. Russell
Princeton University

Richard Arimoto
New Mexico State University

Richard Flagan
California Institute of Technology

Si-Chee Tsay
NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center

Thomas A. Cahill
University of California

Tim Bates

Yuan Gao
Rutgers University

William C. Keene
University of Virginia