1999 Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) Cruise
22-Feb-1999 to 2-Apr-1999
I CRUISE OVERVIEW AND ITINERARY
The 1999 INDOEX cruise consists of three legs, all within the western Indian Ocean, beginning at Mauritius and ending at Male, Maldives. The ship will traverse three different regimes of air: relatively clean Southern Hemisphere air, air within the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and air directly impacted by continental emissions.
Leg 1. The ship will depart Port Louis, Mauritius (UT+4)
on 22-Feb-1999, and proceeds to ~6oS,
62oE for an aircraft
flyby (Geophysica) out of Seychelles, on 25-Feb, then on to Male, Maldives
(UT+5), arriving on 28-Feb.
Leg 2. Ship will leave Male on 4-Mar for a position near Kaashidhoo Island (4o58N, 73o28E), where it will participate in a 1-day intercomparison with the Kaashidhoo Cli- mate Observatory (KCO). It will then proceed along the Indian coast just outside the Indian EEZ (200-nm, 230.3 miles, 370.7 km). The Indian ship SAGAR KANYA will be cruising inside the EEZ near the RONALD H. BROWN during March 6-10. The RONALD H. BROWN will subsequently proceed to 19o00'N, 69o14'E, turn southwest, cross the equator at 62EE, cross the ITCZ, and proceed southward to 15oS, 73oE. It will then turn due north, cross the equator at 73E, turn, and continue to Male, arriving on 23-Mar.
Leg 3. Ship will depart Male on 26-Mar, proceed to 80oE, 2oN (outside the Sri Lanka EEZ), then southwest along 80oE to 9oS, then turning and proceeding to Male, arriving on 2-April. Waypoints are give in Table 1.
Contacts: Science Science Ship operations
Dr. Thomas P. Carsey Dr. Russell Dickerson CDR Jon Rix, Chief, AMC Operations
Dept. Meteorology, UMd
Atlantic Marine Center
4301 Rickenbacker Cy College Park, Md 439 West York Street
Miami, FL 33149 MD 20742-2425 Norfolk, VA 23510
305 361-4386 301 405-5364 757 441-6842/6206
email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Jon.E.Rix@noaa.gov
TABLE 1: WAYPOINT LOCATIONS AND TIMES
Latitude Longitude Location Approximate Time Sea Days
LEG 1 7
20o 09' S 57o 30' E Port Louis,
Mauritius 22-Feb 9 am
06o 00' S 62o 00' E aircraft overflight 25-Feb 2:30 pm
04o 10' N 73o 30' E Male, Maldives 28-Feb 11 pm
LEG 2 20
04o 10' N 73o 30' E Male, Maldives
4-Mar 10 am
04o 58' N 73o 28' E Kaashidhoo 4-Mar 4 pm to 5-Mar 4 pm
07o 39' N 69o 41' E India coast #1 7-Mar 4 pm
09o 44' N 68o 43' E India coast #2 7-Mar 1 am
11o 58' N 68o 29' E India coast #3 8-Mar 10 am
12o 47' N 68o 42' E India coast #4 8-Mar 4 pm
13o 28' N 69o 04' E India coast #5 9-Mar 10 pm
14o 11' N 69o 34' E India coast #6 9-Mar 4 am
15o 12' N 70o 21' E India coast #7 9-Mar 1 pm
17o 28' N 69o 30' E India coast #8 10-Mar 7 am
18o 23' N 69o 19' E India coast #9 10-Mar 2 pm
19o 00' N 69o 14' E India coast #10 10-Mar 6 pm
00o 00' N 62o 00' E Equator 15-Mar 9 am
15o 00' S 73o 00' E South waypoint 19-Mar 2 pm
00o 00' N 73o 00' E North waypoint 22-Mar 12 pm
04o 10' N 73o 30' E Male, Maldives 23-Mar 11 pm
LEG 3 8
04o 10' N 73o 30' E Male, Maldives
26-Mar 10 am
02o 00' N 80o 00' E North waypoint 27-Mar 12 pm
09o 00' S 80o 00' E South waypoint 30-Mar 12 am
04o 10' N 73o 30' E Male, Maldives 2-Apr 7 pm
Total Sea Days: 35
II. STATEMENT OF OBJECTIVES
The cruise is an important component of the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX). This project is a large multi-national, multi-agency intensive field experiment in the Indian Ocean with three interrelated objectives:
The activities of the RONALD H. BROWN during the INDOEX cruise will include communication and cooperation with some or all of the following additional INDOEX platforms:
ORV Sagar Kanya (India, www-indoex.ucsd.edu/sagarkanya.html)
Kaashidhoo Climate Observatory (KCO), Maldives (www-indoex.ucsd.edu/KCO.html)
Mauritius University (www.uom.ac.mu/Home_Page/Index.html)
Mt. Abu, India (www-indoex.ucsd.edu/MtAbuCO.html)
Trivandrum, India (www-indoex.ucsd.edu/TrivCO.html)
Tromelin Island, Reunion (www-indoex.ucsd.edu/TromCO.html)
III. OVERVIEW OF INSTRUMENTATION
Instrumentation on the ship will be used for intensive continuous sampling in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and remote sensing of the atmosphere on temporal and spatial scales compatible with synoptic-scale meteorology of the region. Measurements to be made on the cruise are described in Table II. Scientific personnel to be on the ship are listed in Table III.
The INDOEX cruise will follow the Atmospheric Aerosols and Climate Change cruise (Norfolk to Mauritius); many of the chemical and meteorological measurements will also be made during this cruise.
TABLE II: MEASUREMENTS
OBSERVATION METHOD INVESTIGATOR
NO, NOx, NOy Chemiluminescence Carsey,AOML/Dickerson,UMD
O3 UV Absorption Carsey,AOML/Dickerson,UMD
CO IR Absorption Dickerson/UMD
SO2 Pulsed Fluor. Dickerson/UMD
j(NO2) Actinometery Dickerson/UMD
O3 Sondes (Leg 2) Kley/KFA
H2CO, H2O2, NO2, CO TDLAS Fischer/MPI
ROx Chem Amp. Burrows/Bremen
O3, Rn, DMS in situ Bates/PMEL
Column O3 Prede Sun Photometer Flatau/UCSD
Column O3 Microtops Thompson/GSFC, Dickerson/UMD
Column O3/H2O Sun Photometer Meywerk/SIO
SO2,NH3 HPLC, UV fluorescence Rodhe/Stockholm
SO2,NH3 FIA/DS/UV fluorescence Rodhe/Stockholm
NMHC Cannisters/GC Brenninkmeijer/MPI
Particle S/N Dist DMPS & APS Bates/PMEL
Aerosol scat., bkgscat, abs Nephelometers & PSAP Quinn/PMEL
Size Seg aerosol (major ions, dust, mass) Impactors Quinn/PMEL
Aerosol Opt. Depth Sun Photometers Quinn/PMEL
Size Seg aerosol (major ions) Impactors Dickerson/UMD;Carsey/AOML
Size dist and hydroscopy TDMPS/HTDMA Wiedensohler/Heintzenberg, Leipzig
Size Seg aerosol (OG/EC) Impactors Wiedensohler/Heintzenberg
Aerosol composition streaker Annegarn/ UWSA
Aerosol opt. thickness Sun Photometers Dickerson/UMD
Aerosol opt. thickness; sky radiance Prede Sun Photometer Flatau/UCSD
Total aerosol thickness, col. water vapor Microtops sun photometer Flatau/UCSD
Aerosol backscatter Micro-Pulse LIDAR Flatau/UCSD
Precip. Chem. Ion Chrom., ICP-MS Rodhe/Stockholm
Size Seg. Aerosol Impactors Rodhe/Stockholm
Org C Single Particle Prather/UCR
Surface Met in situ NOAA Standard
Upper air met. (2 day) sondes (WMO ASAP) INDOEX
Upper air met. Profiler NOAA Standard (Post)
Upper air met. Profiler NCAR;Raman/NCSU
Boundary Layer Sodar Raman/NCSU
Precp/cloud props Doppler-Radar Gray/NOAA
mages Cloud camera Meywerk/SIO
Spectral irradiance BSI radiometer Meywerk/SIO
Solar UV-NIR ASD FieldSpec UV/VNIR Meywerk/SIO
Total irradiance Eppley PSP & Kipp&Zonen pyr. Meywerk/SIO
Water leaving radiance Epply broadband radiometer Flatau/UCSD
Images; water leaving radiance Whole sky camera Voss/UCSD
Water leaving radiance SIMBAD Subramanian/UCSD
Downwelling radiance SIMBIOS Mitchell/UCSD
CTD Probes Flatau/UCSD
Water irradiance MER2048/2041 Flautau/UCSD
Water leaving radiance SIMBAD Frouin/UCSD
.upwelling and downwelling radiance Satlantic free fall radiometer Flatau/UCSD
DMS (aq) Stripping Bates/PMEL
CO2 (air/water) IR Absorption Wannikhof/AOML
Chlorophyll,O2 in situ Wannikhof/AOML
Conductivities unknown scientist/IITM
IV.1 The position of Chief Scientist will be performed
by Dr. Thomas Carsey (AOML) and by Dr. Russell Dickerson (UMd). Because
the project concerns measurements of variable ocean parameters, it may
be necessary to modify the project in the field to obtain maximum scientific
value from the cruise. The Chief Scientist will have the authority to revise
or alter the technical portion of the project instructions as the work
progresses, provided that, after consultation with the Commanding Officer,
it is ascertained that the proposed changes will not:
1) Jeopardize the ship's safety;
2) Exceed the overall allotted time for the project;
3) Result in undue additional expenses;
4) Exceed the general intent of the project guidelines.
IV.2 Personnel are listed in Table III.
TABLE III: PERSONNEL
Name Institution Citizenship SexLegs
Ball, Wilnetta UMD USA F 1,2,3
Burkert, Joern Bremen Germany M 1,2,3
Call, Bill SIO USA M 1
Capone, Doug USC USA M 3
Carsey, Thomas AOML USA M 1,2,3
Coffee, Keith UCR USA M 2,3
Coffman, Derek PMEL USA M 1,2,3
Colgan, Chuck SIO USA M 1
Cremer, Ruben KFA Germany M 1,2,3
Dickerson, Russell UMD USA M 1,2,3
Farmer, Michael AOML USA M 1,2
Fischer, Horst MPI Germany M 1
Flatau, Piotr SIO USA M 1,2,3
Granat, Lennert MISU Sweden M 2,3
Hamilton, Drew PMEL USA M 1,2,3
Johnson, James PMEL USA M 1
Klein, Ingrid* HTM Germany F 3
Maldivian meteorologist ?? Maldives M 2,3
Markowicz, Krzysztof SIO Poland M 1,2,3
Massling, Andreas IfT Germany M 1,2,3
Mauritian osbserver ??? Mauritius M 1
Meywerk, Jens SIO Germany M 1,2,3
Miller, Teresa PMEL USA F 1,2,3
Mitchell, Greg SIO USA M 1
Murugavel, P IITM India M 1,2,3
Nelson, Jessica SIO USA F 2,3
Neusuess, Christian IfT Germany M 1,2,3
Norman, Michael MISU Sweden M 1,2
Ohrstrom, Agneta MISU Sweden F 1
Reichert, Lars Bremen German M 1,2,3
Schiller, Corinne MPI Canada F 1,2,3
Schneider, Douglas G NCSU USA M 1,2,3
Smit, Herman KFA Germany M 1,2,3
Stehr, Jeff UMD USA M 1,2,3
Subramanian, Ajit CBL USA M 2,3
Tuazzotti, Sergio UCR Argentina M 2,3
Wagner, Volker MPI Germany M 1,2,3
Warrior, Hari NCSU India M 1,2,3
Welton, Judd UM USA M 1,2,3
Wendt, Mattias HTF Germany M 3
Wieland, John SIO USA M 1,2,3
Yang, Z PMEL China M 1,2,3
Zahn, Andreas MPI Germany M 1,2,3
Klein, I will be bunked with F. crewmember M: 30,29,29
F: 4, 4, 5
TOTAL SCIENTIFIC PERSONNEL 34,33,34
AOML NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory,
Miami, FL, U.S.A.
Bremen University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
C4 Center for Clouds, Chemistry, and Climate, Scripps, U.S.A.
CBL Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, UMd, Solomans, MD, U.S.A.
CMDL NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, Boulder, CO, U.S.A.
GFSC NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, U.S.A.
HTF High Tech Film, Koln, Germany
IfT Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig, Germany
IITM Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, India
JASIO Joint Institute Study Atmosphere Ocean, Seattle, WA, U.S.A.
KFA Institute for the Chemistry of the Polluted Atmosphere, Juelich, Germany
MISU Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
MPI Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany
NASA NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, U.S.A.
NPGS Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, U.S.A.
PMEL NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, WA, U.S.A.
SIO Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA, U.S.A.
UCSD University of California at San Diego, U.S.A.
UCR University of California at Riverside, U.S.A.
UMd University of Maryland, College Park, MD, U.S.A.
UW University of Washington, Seattle, WA, U.S.A.
UWSA University of Witwatersrand, Braamfontien, South Africa
V.1 Cruise Itinerary.
Charts of the three legs of the cruise are given in Figure
1, and a list of station waypoints is given in Table I. The experimental
venue requires positioning of the ship with respect to the Intertropical
Convergence Zone (ITCZ). As the ITCZ location cannot be predicted ahead
of time, but rather must be determined by up-to-date meteorology, the cruise
track will need to be modified from that in Figure 1, depending on the
Indian Ocean mesoscale meteorology.
In addition, some latitude is requested in the coordination with other INDOEX platforms; in particular, for the proposed intercomparisons with the Indian ship SAGAR KANYA and with the ground station in Kaashidhoo, Male.
V.2 Underway Measurements
Chemical and physical measurements are listed in Table II. These will be continuous except during unfavorable wind direction/speed conditions. Air samples will be collected at various sites on the ship, in most cases from the forward part of the 01 or 02 levels. Air intakes will be placed on a mast extending off the Aero Van approximately 8 meters above the 02 deck. Additional air sampling lines will run from this location to the oceanographic laboratories and laboratory van (Al Van) on 01 level port side. Air sampling and atmospheric radiation instrumentation (SIO) will also be mounted on the AOML bow tower. The tower will be installed on the ship before departure from the U.S.
Ship and scientific personnel must constantly be aware of potential sample contamination. Work activities forward of the main stack must be secured during sampling operations. This includes the bow, boat deck forward of the stack, bridge deck and flying bridge. The scientists on watch must be notified of any change in ship course or speed that will move the relative wind abaft the ship's beam or if anyone needs access to the bow. The scientists on watch should also be notified when the ship enters a rain squall and when the rain subsides.
Continuous water sampling will be made from the ship's bow intake system. This system must be capable of delivering 75 liters per minute. Seawater will be drawn off this line for the CO2 equilibrator in the Main Lab. Care must be taken to prevent contamination from smoke, solvent, cleaning solutions, etc.
V.3 Station Operations
V.3.1 A CTD/optics (Scripps CTD deployed from stern A-frame) and a CTD/rosette (ship’s system deployed from starboard side) cast may be made at the time of the SeaWifs satellite overpass, if weather conditions and ship’s schedule permit, as determined by the Chief Scientist. Maximum cast depth for the cast will be 300. Atmospheric and surface seawater sampling will continue while on station. The ship will remain headed into the wind to prevent contamination from the ship's exhaust and vents. Again, extreme care must be exercised to prevent contamination of the air samples. The scientists on watch must be notified of any ship operation that will move the relative wind abaft the ship's beam. An additional station will occur every third day during the AVHRR overpass (mid-afternoon). A CTD/optics and CTD/rosette cast will be performed if the sky is clear.
V.3.2. A RADS tethered radiometer (UM, Ken Voss) will also be deployed during the CTD/optics station operations.
V.4 Balloon Launches
Atmospheric temperature, humidity and wind profiles will be obtained from rawindsondes released from the ASAP van twice per day at 1100 and 2300 UCT. The data from these launches will be sent by the ship via GTS for worldwide distribution to regional/national meteorological centers. An ozone sonde will be launched from the ship’s fantail once per day by KFA personnel.
VI.1 Equipment and capabilities to be provided by ship
The following systems and their associated support services are essential to the cruise. Sufficient consumables, back-up units, and on-site spare parts and technical support must be in place to assure that operational interruptions are minimal. All measurement instruments are expected to have current calibrations and all pertinent calibration information shall be included in the data package.
VI.1.1 Navigational systems including high resolution GPS.
VI.1.2 CTD/rosette sampling systems. The CTD system will be operated by ship's personnel. Specific requirements for this system are:
-- 2 CTD capable winch systems with 500 meter depth capability,
-- CTD stand and rosette,
-- Niskin bottles with silicon O-rings and tubing (15 ea, 10 liter).
VI.1.3 Autosal Salinometer, salinity sample bottles, standard sea water for one calibration per day. Groups using the salinometer data (SIO) will make arrangements to replenish ship’s standard sea water samples, or will bring their own.
VI.1.4 Thermosalinograph calibrated to within 0.1°C and 0.01 ppt.
VI.1.5 Dry compressed air (120 psi, 4 CFM) to the pump van.
VI.1.6 Power, water and telephone connections to vans (see section 5.2).
VI.1.7 Continuously flowing seawater to the AL van and equilibrator (minimum of 75 liters per minute).
VI.1.8 Laboratory/work space.
VI.1.9 Freezer space for air and seawater samples.
VI.1.10 Refrigerator space (10 cubic feet) for air samples (no chemicals).
VI.I.11 Ship will construct a through-deck penetration in the Main Lab forward, starboard side (main to 0-1 deck) for use in aerosol sampling during INDOEX (see VI.2.5).
VI.1.12 Niskin bottles. SIO will arrange for the replacement of old black rubber coated inner springs on the ship's Nisken bottles with silicon or Teflon coated stainless steel to avoid possible contamination.
VI.2 Equipment, capabilities and supplies provided by scientific party
VI.2.1 Air sampling equipment including pumps, flowmeters, filters, ozone and soot analyzer, aerosol sizing instrumentation, condensation nuclei counter, and cloud condensation nuclei counter
VI.2.2 Chemical analysis instrumentation including gas chromatographs, equilibrators, ion chromatographs, glove boxes, autoanalyzers, fluorometers, and pH meter.
VI.2.3 Chemical reagents, compressed gases (approximately 140 cylinders), and liquid nitrogen (210 liters). A complete listing of all chemicals to be brought onboard is included in Appendix C. Material Data Safety Sheets will be provided to ship before any chemicals are loaded.
VI.2.4 CTD/Optics system (480v, 3 amps). A small winch to deploy our optics package off the stern; to be loaded in Norfolk on the main deck aft of the staging bay. Requires a .322 block on the stern and the A-frame for deployment. Dimensions: approx. 4' x 3.5' x 4' (l x w x h). Weight: 3500 lbs. Electrical requirement: 440V, 20 amps. Wire on drum: approx. 500-700 meters of .322 3-conducting, armored sea cable.
VI.2.5. Aerosol sampling line employing the through-deck penetration (VI.1.11) to the 01-level (or 02 level) handrail will be mounted by the UCR group.
VI.2.6 Bow tower to be mounted in Norfolk. Must have SCS/ethernet line and power (110V AC, 20 amp). Instrumentation for tower:
1. MOUDI sampler (UH) for carbon isotopes
2. CSASP (NPGS) for aerosol number size distribution
3. Rainwater collectors (MISU)
4. 7-stage impactor for major ions
5. Radiation instrumentation: two pyranometers, a multi-channel radiometer, and a spectroradiometer
6. Sampling box for NO/NO2/NOy measurements (AOML).
7. Aerosol 'streaker' collector (UWSA)
VI.2.7. MER 2048/2041 surface sensor requested space (8" in diameter x 18" length) on the 05 level above the wheelhouse, on the aft corner rail. (Flatau/SIO)
VI.2.8. PREDE system require a 6'x 9' space, to be mounted on a 4' x 8' angle iron/plywood table, outside, forward of the bridge, on the 03 deck. This location appears to have a relatively unobstructed view of the sky. Power: 100 VAC, 200 w. (Flatau/SIO)
VI.2.9. Micropulse LIDAR to be mounted on 03 level forward. Box 1 is the transmitter/receiver. Its dimensions are 35" tall, with a required base area 24" by 17". (weight about 100 lbs.). Box 2 is contains the control equipment. Its dimensions are 27" tall, with a required base area 30" by 23". (weight about 150 lbs.). Power required: 700watts of 110v on two separate circuits.
VI.2.10. Wet Lab equipment (SIO): Space in the Wet Lab is requested for a fume hood and fresh water work; requests two waist high (approx.4'x8') tables be placed in this area, one on the forward wall next to the hood, and one on the port wall across from the sink area. Some of the instruments listed below will be secured to these tables. Equipment that will reside in the Wet Lab:
1. MER/AC-9/Hydroscat computers and deck box
2. Cary spectrophotometer and computer
3. Coulter Counter, Multisizer, and computer
4. Millipore Alpha-Q system for clean water
5. 8 place Plexiglass filtration rig
6. 34 liter liquid nitrogen dewar
7. FRRF and Hydroscat deck boxes and associated computers
8. Spex Fluoromax spectrofluorometer and computer.
VI.2.11. SIO will have three 160-liter pressurized stainless steel canisters containing liquid nitrogen. Request space for storing these inside the ship in order to protect the canisters from corrosion and reduce inherent evaporation rates (if this is not possible, a covered area on the main deck or 01 deck would suffice). These canisters will be onloaded in Norfolk.
VI.2.12. SIO requests 2 cubic feet of freezer space (-20EC).
VI.2.13. Vans: Table III contains a summary of the vans which will be on board (see Figure 2).
Name Dimension Weight (lb) LocationPower1Services2
Chemistry (AL) 8'x20' 10,000 port side 01 440/30/3 C,S,W,P
Aerosol 8'x18' 12,000 port side 02 440/50/3 C,W,P
Pump 7'x12' 5,000 port side 02 from Aer van A
AOML 8.x 10' 5,000 02 fwd 440/60/3 C,P
MPI/Mainz 8'x20' 18,000 02 440/60/3 C,P,W,A
MPI ‘Machinery’ 8’x20’ 15,000 port side 02 440/6/3 P,C (?)
NH3/SO2 8'x10' 4,000 port side 02 440/10/3 W,P
SIO 7.5'x13.5' 4,000 main deck 440/30/1 W,P
Storage 88'x20' 12,000 port side main -none none
1) Volts/amps/phase; 2) S=seawater; W=potable water; P=phone; C=SCS readout; A=compressed air
VI.2.14 Aerosol sampling mast on the aerosol container van. Inlets will be used for:
1. Nephelometer/PSAP (PMEL)
2. DMPS Number sizing system (UW/PMEL)
3. APS (PMEL) and APS (IfT) and CCN (CSIRO)
4. DMPS/ Tandem DMAs (IFT)
5. Sodium number size distribution (PU) and CN counters (PMEL)
6. 7-stage impactor for trace metals (PU)
7. 2-stage impactor for organic and elemental carbon (IFT)
8. 2-stage impactor for organic carbon speciation (IfT)
9. 2-stage impactor for organic and elemental carbon (PMEL)
10. 2-stage impactor for gravimetric analysis (PMEL)
11. 7-stage impactor for gravimetric analysis (PMEL)
12. 2-stage impactor for ions (PMEL)
13. 7-stage impactor for ions (PMEL)
14. 2- stage impactor for mineral dust (PMEL)
15. 2-stage impactor for SEM XRF (PMEL)
VI.2.15 Rawindesondes, ozonesondes, balloons and helium (116 tanks). Some helium cylinders my be refilled in port.
VI.2.16 Chest freezer for storing organic samples.
VI.2.17 Sky camera. Gimbal mounted whole sky camera (RADS) system to be mounted on the 03 level forward. Dimensions: ~2-foot square; power requirement: 110V, 10 amp; needs 50' data cable to the computer.
VI.2.18. A Machinery Van (MPI/Mainz) will be mounted on O2 forward which will contain a 50-Hz power generator and a liquid-nitrogen generator.
VI.2.19. A mass spectrometer will be on-loaded in Male (Mar 1-3) by the UCR group and placed in the Main Lab.
VI.2.20. Connection will be provided to the ship’s SCS system for logging of specific data sets obtained by AOML/UMD; viz., measured trace gas concentrations of CO, O3, SO2, and jNO2.
VII.1 Data responsibilities
The Chief Scientist is responsible for the disposition, feedback on data quality, and archiving of data and specimens collected on board the ship for the primary project. The Chief Scientist is also responsible for the dissemination of copies of these data to participants on the cruise and to any other requesters. The ship will assist in copying data and reports insofar as facilities allow. The ship will provide the Chief Scientist copies of the following data:
Sightings log (position, speed, course, distance upwind) of other vessels
Autosal salinity analysis logs
Navigational log sheets (MOAs)
Weather observation sheets
Autosal calibration reports
Thermosalinograph calibration reports
CTD cast logs
CTD calibration reports
CTD data in ASCII format
SCS data tapes
The Chief Scientist will receive all original data gathered by the ship for the primary and piggy-back projects, and this data transfer will be documented on NOAA form 61-29 "Letter Transmitting Data". The Chief Scientist in turn will furnish the ship a complete inventory listing of all data gathered by the scientific party, detailing types and quantities of data.
The Commanding Officer is responsible for all data collected for ancillary projects until those data have been transferred to the projects' principal investigators or their designees. Data transfers will be documented on NOAA Form 61-29. Copies of ancillary project data will be provided to the Chief Scientist when requested. Reporting and sending copies of ancillary data to NESDIS (ROSCOP) is the responsibility of the program office sponsoring those projects.
VII.2 Ship operation evaluation report
A Ship Operations Evaluation Report will be completed by the Chief Scientist and given to the Director, AOML, for review and then forwarded to NC3.
VII.4 Foreign research clearance reports
Requests for research clearance in foreign waters (France for Reunion Island, Mauritius, Maldives, UK for Diego Garcia, and Seychelles) have been submitted by AOML or PMEL. Copies of clearances received will be provided to the FOO before departure. The Chief Scientist is responsible for satisfying the post-cruise obligations associated with diplomatic clearances to conduct research operations in foreign waters. These obligations consist of (1) submitting a "Preliminary Cruise Report" immediately following the completion of the cruise involving the research in foreign waters (due at ONCO within 30 days); and (2) ultimately meeting the commitments to submit data copies of the primary project to the host foreign countries.
VII.5 Pre- and post-cruise meetings
A pre-cruise meeting between the Commanding Officer and the Chief Scientist will be conducted either the day before or the day of departure, with the express purpose of identifying day-to-day project requirements, in order to best use shipboard resources and identify overtime needs.
A post-cruise debriefing will be held between the Chief Scientist and the Commanding Officer.
IIX. Hazardous Material
IIX.1 The RONALD H. BROWN will operate in full compliance with all environmental compliance requirements imposed by NOAA. All hazardous materials/substances needed to carry out the objectives of the embarked science mission, including ancillary tasks, are the direct responsibility of the embarked designated Chief Scientist, whether or not that Chief Scientist is using them directly. The RONALD H. BROWN’s Environmental Compliance Officer will work with the Chief Scientist to ensure that this management policy is properly executed, and that any problems are brought promptly to the attention of the Commanding Officer.
IIX.2 All hazardous materials require a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Copies of all MSDS sheets shall be forwarded to the ship at least two weeks prior to sailing. The Chief Scientist shall have copies of each MSDS available when the hazardous materials are loaded aboard. Hazardous material for which the MSDS is not provided will not be loaded aboard.
IIX.3 The Chief Scientist will complete a local inventory form, provided by the Commanding Officer, indicating the amount of each material brought onboard, and for which the Chief Scientist is responsible. This inventory shall be updated at departure, accounting for the amount of material being removed, as well as the amount consumed in science operations and the amount being removed in the form of waste. A list of chemicals and gases that will be on board the ship for this cruise is listed in Appendix B. All chemicals and gases will be on board in Norfolk on 14-Jan, or will be loaded in Cape Town (MPI) or in Male (UCR)
IIX.4 The ship’s dedicated HAZMAT Locker contains two 45-gallon capacity flame cabinets and one 22-gallon capacity flame cabinet, plus some available storage on the deck. Unless there are dedicated storage lockers (meeting OSHA/NFPA standards) in each van, all HAZMAT, except small amounts for ready use, must be stored in the HAZMAT Locker.
IIX.5 The scientific party, under the supervision of the Chief Scientist, shall be prepared to respond fully to emergencies involving spills of any mission HAZMAT. This includes providing properly-trained personnel for response, as well as the necessary neutralizing chemicals and clean-up materials. Ship’s personnel are not first responders and will act in a support role only, in the event of a spill. D. Hamilton, D. Coffman, and T. Miller (PMEL) have been trained in hazardous material response.
IIX.6 The Chief Scientist is directly responsible for the proper handling, both administrative and physical, of all scientific party hazardous wastes. No liquid wastes shall be introduced into the ship’s drainage system. No solid waste material shall be placed in the ship’s garbage.
IIX.7. Radioactive Materials
The NOAA radioactive isotopes policy is provided in Appendix C. Specific procedures for use on the INDOEX cruise are given in Appendix D.
IX.1 Scientific berthing
The Chief Scientist is responsible for assigning berthing for scientific party within the spaces designated as scientific berthing. The ship will send stateroom diagrams to the Chief Scientist showing authorized berthing spaces. The Chief Scientist is responsible for returning the scientific berthing spaces back over to the ship in the condition in which they were received; for stripping bedding and linen return; and for the return of any room keys which were issued.
The Chief Scientist is also responsible for the cleanliness of the laboratory spaces and the storage areas utilized by the scientific party, both during the cruise and its conclusion prior to departing the ship.
In accordance with NC Instruction 5355.0, Controlled Substances Aboard NOAA Vessels dated 06 August 1985, all persons boarding NOAA vessels give implied consent to conform with all safety and security policies and regulations which are administered by the Commanding Officer. All spaces and equipment on the vessel are subject to inspection or search at any time.
IX.2 Emergency Contacts
Prior to departure, the Chief Scientist must provide a listing of emergency contacts to the Executive Officer for all members of the scientific party, with the following information: name, address, relationship to member, and telephone number.
IX.3 Weather Deck Safety
Wearing opened-toed footwear of any kind while on the weather decks is unsafe and is not permitted onboard this ship. This shipboard safety regulation is included in the Commanding Officer's Standing Orders, and will be enforced. All members of the scientific party should be aware of this regulation before embarking.
IX.4 Additional Investigations and Projects
Any additional work will be subordinate to the primary project and will be accomplished only with the concurrence of the Chief Scientist and Commanding Officer on a not-to-interfere basis. The following ancillary projects will be conducted by ship's personnel in accordance with general instructions contained in the AMC OPORDER:
(a) SEAS Data Collection and Transmission (PMC OPORDER 1.2.1)
(b) Marine Mammal Reporting (PMC OPORDER 1.2.2)
(c) Sea Turtle Observations (SP-PMC-2-89)
(d) Bathymetric Trackline (PMC OPORDER 1.2.5)
A daily radio message / INTERNET schedule using JFT software will be maintained between the RONALD H. BROWN and the INDOEX project headquarters in Male, and with NOAA/AOML at least once each day. Radio contact (SSB radiotelephone or INMARSAT) will be maintained with Male when possible.
The ship is equipped with INMARSAT-A, a telephone / teletype satellite communication system. If the scientific staff uses this system, they will be obligated to pay for their calls, which are estimated at $6.02 per minute for voice or rapid fax and $4.00 per minute for Telex. The Chief Scientist or designee will have access to and assistance provided for transmitting and receiving communications through INMARSAT as needed during the cruise. The ship's INMARSAT number is 011-sat-154-2643 (voice) and 011-sat-154-2644 (fax), where sat is the satellite, i.e., 872: = Pacific West; 871 = Atlantic East, 873 = Indian. The ship has also been equipped with INMARSAT-M capability. The cost is estimated at $2.99/minute for ship-to-U.S.A.calls. The INMARSAT-M telephone number is 011-sat-761-266-581.
An email account for erach embarked personnel will be established by the shipboard electronics staff. The general format is:
Due to the escalating volume of e-mail and its associated transmission costs, each member of the ship’s complement, crew and scientist, will be authorized to send/receive up to 15 KB of data per day ($1.50/day or $45/month) at no cost. E-mail costs accrued in excess of this amount must be reimbursed by the individual. At or near the end of each leg, the commanding officer will provide the chief scientist with a detailed billing statement for all personnel in his party. Prior to their departure, the chief scientist will be responsible for obtaining reimbursement from any member of his party whose e-mail costs have exceeded the complimentary entitlement.
Radio transmission can interfere with several of the continuous data streams. If this becomes a problem, the Commanding Officer and Chief Scientist will work out a transmission schedule to minimize data interferences to the extent that vessel communication needs allow.
IX.6 Small Boat Operations
Small boat operations are weather dependent and at the Command’s discretion.
IX.7 Wage marine dayworker working hours and rest periods
The Chief Scientists shall be cognizant of the reduced capability of the RONALD H. BROWN’s operating crew to support 24-hour mission activities with a high tempo of deck operations at all hours. Wage marine employees are subject to negotiated work rules contained in the applicable collective bargaining agreement. Dayworkers’ hours of duty are a continuous eight-hour period, beginning no earlier than 0600 and ending no later than 1800. It is not permissible to separate such an employee’s workday into several short work periods with interspersed nonwork periods. Dayworkers called out to work between the hours of 0000 and 0600 are entitled to a rest period of one hour for each such hour worked. Such rest periods begin at 0800 and will result in no dayworkers being available to support science operations until the rest period has been observed. All wage marine employees are supervised and assigned work only by the Commanding Officer or designee. The Chief Scientist and the Commanding Officer shall consult regularly to ensure that the shipboard resources available to support the embarked mission are utilized safely, efficiently and with due economy.
IX.8. Port Agents. The following agents have been identified for assistance with port operations:
SOUTH AFRICA MAURITIUS MALDIVES
J.T.Rennie & Sons. Ireland Blyth Limited Abdulla Shaheer
POC: Mr. Gary Eagar 1 Queen Street, PO Box 53 Shahin Services Pte Ltd
Phone 27-21-419-8660 Port Louis, Mauritius M. Capla, Male=C6, 20-02
Fax 27-21-21-6894 POC: Cpt J. Goilot, Manager Republic of Maldives
Cellular 27-08-2882-0166 Office Phone: 230 208 3241 Tel: (960) 32 5212
email@example.com Fax: 230 2088931 or 5814 Mobile: (960) 77 2794
firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Fax: (960) 31 7024
Contractual agreements exist between the port agents and the commanding officer for services provided to NOAA ship RONALD H. BROWN. The costs for any services arranged through the ship’s agents by the scientific program which are considered to be outside the scope of the agent/ship support agreement will be the responsibility of that program. Reimbursement for all such services will be the responsibility of the program.
X APPROVAL OF INSTRUCTIONS
Approval of instructions will be acknowledged in writing:
Rear Admiral John C. Albright, NOAA (date)
Director, Atlantic and Pacific Marine Centers
Dr. Kristina Katsaros, NOAA (date)
Director, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory
APPENDIX A: Drawing of NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN showing
APPENDIX B: CHEMICALS AND GASES
ITEN QUANTITY GROUP LOCATION
carbon dioxide 2 tanks PMEL Aero van
helium 1 tank MISU NH3 van
helium 8 tanks PMEL AL van
breathing air 3 tanks PMEL AL van
balloon helium 60 tanks PMEL fantail
propane 1 tank PU Aero van
CO standard in nitrogen (5ppm) 1 tank UMD AOML van
oxygen 6 tanks AOML AOML van
zero-air 10 tanks AOML AOML van
NO in nitrogen (10 ppm) 1 tank AOML AOML van
nitrogen 1 tank UM 03 deck
nitrogen 1 tank MISU NH3 van
nitrogen 2 tanks CO2-PMEL Hydro lab
standard air tanks 8 tanks CO2-PMEL Hydro lab
CO 4 tanks IUP AOML van
NO in nitrogen (600 ppm) 2 tanks IUP AOML van
nitrogen 9 tanks IUP AOML van
zero-air 21 tanks IUP AOML van
liquid nitrogen 2 180 L tanks SIO main lab
liquid nitrogen 6 180 L tanks MPI main lab
CO standard in air (5 ppm) 1 tank UMD AOML van
SO2 standard in air (5 0ppm) 1 tank UMD AOML van
NO standard in nitrogen (8 ppmv) 1 tank MPI MPI van
NO2 standard in nitrogen (10 ppmv) 1 tank MPI MPI van
CO standard in nitrogen (200 ppmv) 1 tank MPI MPI van
Synthetic air 2 tanks MPI MPI van
CO 2 tanks MPI MPI van
CH4 2 tanks MPI MPI van
N2O 2 tanks MPI MPI van
NO2 1 tank MPI MPI van
CO2 2 tanks MPI MPI van
acetone 8 l PMEL Main Lab
acetone 4 l CO2-PMEL Hydro Lab
acetone 2.5 l MISU NH3 van
acetone 5 l SIO SIO van
acetonitrile 1 l MPI MPI van
2-aminoethanol 1 l MISU NH3 van
ammonium chloride 500 g PMEL AL van
ammonium sulfate 1 kg PMEL AL van
borax 1 kg MISU NH3 van
butanol 32 l PMEL Ship’s HML
carbon 14 25 mci SIO SIO van
cadmium 250 g PMEL AL van
calcium sulfate (drierite) 10 kg PMEL AL van
charcoal 500 g PMEL AL van
charcoal 500g IUP AOML van
chromotropic acid 25g MPI MPI van
citric acid 2 kg PMEL AL van
Coulometer solution 8 l CO2-PMEL Hydro Lab
cupric sulfate 500 g PMEL AL van
dimethylsulfide 25 ml PMEL AL van
dinitrophenylhydrazine 50g MPI MPI van
drierite 800 g MISU NH3 van
EDTA 300 g MISU NH3 van
ethanol 10 l MISU NH3 van
ethanol 6 l SIO SIO van
ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) 25 g PMEL AL van
ferric sulfate 500 g IUP AOML van
formaldehyde 37% 2 l MISU NH3 van
formaldehyde 37% 1 l MPI MPI van
glycerin 2 g on filters UMD AOML van
glycerol (30%) 1 l SIO SIO van
hexane 1 l PMEL AL van
hydrochloric acid 5 l PMEL AL van
hydrochloric acid 2 l SIO SIO van
hydrochloric acid (37%) 1 l MPI MPI van
hydrochloric acid (50%) 1 l PU Main Lab
hydrogen peroxide (33%) 4 l PMEL AL van
hydrogen peroxide (50%) 0.1 l MPI MPI van
hydrogen peroxide (30%) 1 l MPI MPI van
isopropyl alcohol 4 l PMEL AL van
isopropyl alcohol 500 ml PU Aero van
isopropyl alcohol 2 l CO2-PMEL Hydro Lab
isopropyl alcohol 1 l IUP AOML van
luminol 100 g IUP AOML van
magnesium perchlorate 1 kg CO2-PMEL Hydro Lab
methanesulfonic acid 500 ml PMEL AL van
methanol 7 l PMEL AL van
methanol 10 l SIO SIO van
methanol 500 ml PU Aero van
methanol 60 l MISU Ship’s HML
N-1-naphthyl-ethylenediamine dihydrochloride 80 g PMEL AL van
nitric acid 500 ml PU Aero van
OPA 2 g MISU NH3 van
OPA 200 g PMEL Main lab
Oxalic acid 6.3% in water 2 x 100ml MPI MPI van
Palladium on alumina 500 g UMD AOML van
paraformaldehyde (30%) 1 l MPI MPI van
PEA (phenyl ethanol amine) 60 ml SIO SIO van
pH buffer solutions 1 l MISU NH3 van
pH buffer solutions 1.5 l PMEL Main lab
phosphoric acid 1 l PMEL AL van
platinum-aluminum oxide pellets 25 g IUP AOML van
potassium carbonate 2 kg PMEL AL van
potassium carbonate 2 g on filters UMD AOML van
potassium hydroxide 100 g IUP AOML van
potassium iodide 500 g CO2-PMEL Hydro Lab
potassium iodate 25 g PMEL AL van
potassium permanganate 6.3% in water 3 x 50ml MPI MPI van
scintillation cocktaim 12 l SIO SIO van
silica gel 2 kg MPI MPI van
sodium acetate 2 kg MISU NH3 van
sodium bisulfite 39% in water 1 l MPI MPI van
sodium citrate 2 kg PMEL Main lab
sodium hydroxide 2 kg PMEL AL van
sodium hydroxide 50% 2 l MISU NH3 van
sodium hydrogen phosphate 1 kg MISU NH3 van
sodium sulfite 1 kg MISU NH3 van
sodium sulfite 200g PMEL Main lab
sodium sulfite 100g IUP AOML van
sulfanilamide solution 80 l PMEL AL van
sulfuric acid 5 l PMEL AL van
sulfuric acid 2 l MPI MPI van
titantetrachloride 34% in HCl (37%) 2x 0.5l MPI MPI van
Chemicals to be loaded in Male
methanol 2 l UCR Main lab
acetone 2 l UCR Main lab
APPENDIX C: NOAA RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PROTOCOL
APPENDIX D: RADIO-ISOTOPE PROCEDURES FOR INDOEX
1. Protocol for Photosynthesis vs. Irradiance Experiments
w The isotope usage aboard the RONALD H. BROWN will not exceed 25 mCi of carbon 14. The maximum usage in one day will be 0.6 mCi. (Each day we will use 1-5 mCi per sample. The experiments will be performed at 4 depth with 25 samples at each depth giving a total of 100 samples per day.)
w The carbon 14 stock will be transported directly from the manufacturer to the boat in liquid form. All carbon 14 will be stored within the refrigerator of the Scripps Photobiology Group van.
w All isotope work will occur only within the isotope section of the Scripps Photobiology Group van. While in the isotope section of the van, personnel will wear lab coats, gloves, and disposable protective footwear. The back one-third of the van is considered the isotope section. This section of the van contains the hood and the refrigerator. The floor is sealed and there is a dam on the floor separating the isotope section from the remainder of the van. The isotope section of the van had been checked by Environmental Health and Safety at UCSD and is approved for isotope work.
w No samples, stocks or waste will be removed from the isotope section of the van until the end of our segment of the cruise in Male (or in Singapore). All radioactive materials will be packaged in secondary radiation-approved containers before being removed from the isotope section of the van.
w The work will be performed under B. Greg Mitchell's UCSD license (RUA 869). John Wieland and Jessica Nelson are authorized users on the above-mentioned license.
w The licenses noted above must state that these users are allowed to work with radioisotopes aboard the RONALD H. BROWN in the INDOEX working area (e.g., western Indian Ocean).
w The following people will be in charge of isotope usage while at sea:
w Loading in Norfolk – Greg Mitchell
w INDOEX Leg 1: Mauritius to Male - Greg Mitchell
w INDOEX Leg 2: Male to Mauritius - Jessica Nelson
w INDOEX Leg 3: Mauritius to Male - Jessica Nelson
w Wipes will be done weekly while aboard. If a scintillation counter becomes available, it will be brought and wipes will be processed immediately. If a scintillation counter is not available, the wipes will be shipped back to Scripps Institution of Oceanography during each port of call. The wipes will be processed when received at SIO and results of the wipes will be e-mailed to the ship. We estimate this procedure to take approximately 7 days after arrival in port. In addition, we plan to have a hand-held counter on board. This counter should have a 14% efficiency for carbon 14 and would be useful if a spill occurred.
1. The following samples/waste will be transported back to the U.S. from the Maldives
w Samples - 4000 scintillation vials with a combined activity of 20 mCi
w Dry waste - we will have 4-5 bags of dry waste and 5-10 one gallon jugs (e.g. milk gallons) for pipette tips, both with trace amounts of radioactivity
w Liquid waste - we will have approximately 3L of liquid waste with less than 3 mCi of activity
w Remaining stock - less than 10 mCi
w All waste/samples will be transported in secondary, radiation-approved containers.
2. Our samples will be acidified and 99.99% of the radioactive
carbon will be released from the fume hood while the ship is underway.
For example, although 1-5 mCi will be added
to our samples, on average only 0.0005 mCi will
remain after acidification. The carbon dioxide will be released in accordance
with NRC regulations limiting the exposure of the general public to radioactive
Procedure for Dealing with Spills and Personnel Contamination Spills:
1. Notify individuals in the area of the spill's occurrence, location, size and nature.
2. Wash your hands if they have become contaminated as part of the spill incident.
3. Put on personal protective equipment including gloves, labcoat and eyewear to prevent contamination of the hands, body, and street clothes, if these are not already being worn.
4. Define and confine the spill zone. Mark off the spill area with chalk, markers, tape, etc. and restrict traffic to that area.
5. Individuals in the spill zone must stay within the zone until monitored for contamination, then decontaminated and/or established as free of contamination. Individuals initially within the spill zone should move to the area of lowest exposure.
6. If the spill was of dry material, dampen the spill slightly. This will avoid the spill's spread due to air currents or wind. Be careful not to spread the spill area unnecessarily. If the spill was of liquid material, cover the liquid with absorbent material (such as paper towels or Dessicant) to limit the spread of contamination.
7. Shut off fans or air circulation devices. Direct exhaust ventilation should be left operating.
8. Notify the captain, resident marine technician, operations officer, chief scientist or other designated individual(s).
9. Once the spill zone is controlled, then emphasis shifts to decontamination procedures. Begin decontamination procedures as soon as possible. Cleaning agents normally used in the laboratory environment should be adequate. SIO radioisotope isolation vans are equipped with spill kits containing the necessary materials. In addition, RadCon surface cleaner is very effective in removing radioactivity from difficult to clean surfaces. Start at the periphery of the contaminated area and work inward. Systematically reduce the contaminated area. Avoid using large circular cleaning motions, as this practice will increase the spill's surface area. Mitigation of liquid bicarbonate carbon-14 spills can be enhanced by rinsing the area with acid (e.g. 10% HCL), releasing the C14 as C14O2. This should be done only in a well ventilated area.
10. Put all contaminated, disposable materials into plastic bags for appropriate disposal later. Contaminated laboratory equipment should be bagged or set aside in dishpans for later decontamination.
11. Survey meter and/or wipe tests will be used to monitor the progress of the decontamination.
1. Administer first aid if necessary.
2. Be aware of personal and ethnic privacy issues when decontaminating personnel.
3. Define the area of contamination. Note the quantity of contamination, size and location.
4. Begin decontamination procedures with the mildest form of cleansing. Skin should be decontaminated using mild soap and water. The decontamination should progress to using soap with a mild abrasive, soft brush and water, then to a mild organic acid (citric acid, vinegar). Nails or hair may need to be trimmed to complete the decontamination. Decontamination procedures should not break the skin.
5. Survey meter and/or wipe tests will be used to monitor the progress of the decontamination.
6. Record the size, location, and degree of contamination. Give this information to the captain, resident marine technician, operations officer, chief scientist or other designated individual(s).
7. Put all contaminated, disposable materials into plastic bags for appropriate disposal later.
8. Clothing may need to be removed or changed. Contaminated clothing may be bagged and retained for decay or disposal.
2. White Light Photosynthetron Experiments
Assumes four White light experiments (e.g 100, 30, 10, 1% Io depths).
1. Turn on cooling system(s) about ~0.5-1.0 hour before experiments. Fill both photosynthetron blocks with "clean", 7 ml (uncapped) scintillation vials to precool and cover. Other clean plasticware including 50 ml graduated cylinder and 100 (4X) ml beakers should also be precooled. It is best to work in room or wetlab near to ambient water temperatures so all pipette tips, etc. are equilibrated.
2. Label vials with a permanent extra fine tip Sharpie marker for total activities (TA, n=3), time zero blanks (t0, n=3) and the incubated experimental samples. Labels should include an alphanumeric characters for the experiment number and type (e.g. 55W for white #55) and sample type or number. The unincubated samples (TAs and t0s are identical triplicates and need only the experiment number and sample type. (e.g. 10S/TA or 55W/t0). Incubated experimental samples (time finals) are unique and should be numbered consecutively (1-24 for white light) with the first and last of the series labeled with the expt # (e.g. 55W/1, 2, 3,...,55W/24). Sets of caps for expts can be labeled and placed in numbered ziplock bags.
3. Prepare sets of vials for TAs and t0s in a vial rack. Need 3 TAs and 3 t0s from each depth. Fill TAs with 5ml of ICN Universol scintillation cocktail and add 50 ul of PEA.
4. Rinse Eppendorf pipette tips with 2 washes of 3N HCL and 5 washes with Alpha-Q water.
5. Ancillary observations should include chlorophyll (n=3). Preparations as required.
1. Collect seawater samples with "clean" Niskins shortly before solar noon to avoid diel rhythms, and store in "clean" polycarbonate bottles. Maintain seawater samples within 1(C of in situ temperature, shaded, and incubate asap. Cooler and lower light is much better than warmer and higher light.
2. Always shake entire sample to mix before subsampling.
1. White Light: Measure 30 ml of phytoplankton sample with grad cylinder, pour into 100 ml beaker, and add ~30-90 mCi of 14C stock so final activity is ~1.0-3.0 mCi of 14C-NaHCO3/ml seawater. A higher activity will be used in oligotrophic waters while a lower activity may be used in near-shore waters. An Eppendorf Repeater Pipette fitted with a 50 ml combi-tip is used to draw entire 30 ml into pipette and expel gently back into beakers to mix. Dispense 1 ml "hot" sample per vial into 24 tfs and 3 t0s. Repeat for other two white depths.
2. Cover vials with black cover to exclude extraneous light, turn on fan and then light to initiate incubation. Record start times.
3. Place t0s in hot plate rack in fume hood, acidify with 0.5 ml 3N HCl per vial to degas inorganic carbon (14C-CO2), and dry to salts at ~70C to eliminate volatile organic C.
4. Pipette 50 ml of "hot" seawater into each of 3 TAs with base cocktail. Cap and parafilm.
5. Process chlorophylls during incubation.
6. After ~0.5-1.0 hour incubation turn off light and record final time. Immediately remove tf vials in order into labelled vial racks and transfer them in order to the hot plate rack in the fume hood. Acidfy each vial with 0.5 ml 3N HCl and dry to salts.
7. After drying cap vials with labeled caps for transport in original boxes. For counting add 5 ml of scintillation cocktail and shake vigorously. One ml of distilled water may be added before cocktail to improve dissolution of salts - optional.
8. Measure irradiance in each position of the block immediately after experimentation.