Atmospheric Aerosols and Climate Change
NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown
January 14 – February 20, 1999
Summary of Cruise Description and Objectives:
The NOAA/OGP Aerosols Project seeks to provide improved information about the radiative forcing of human-influenced particles on the climate system in order to (i) aid the detection and attribution of climate change, in particular, the estimation of the offset that anthropogenic aerosols may be providing to the greenhouse-gas induced warming and the regional forcing induced by inhomogeneous aerosol distributions and (ii) improve the prediction of future climate changes for various radiative-forcing scenarios. This cruise is designed to measure the chemical, physical, optical and cloud-nucleating properties of aerosols in the marine boundary layer of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Aerosol data in these regions are extremely sparse which currently limits our ability to constrain chemical transport and radiative transfer models. The data obtained on this cruise will provide regional means and variability of aerosol precursor gases and aerosol properties as a function of airmass origin. The data will ultimately yield more realistic estimates of the forcing of climate by aerosols relative to recent estimates (e.g., IPCC(1995)) which rely for the most part on estimated global mean aerosol optical properties.
Measurements will be conducted continuously while the ship is in transit from the US to the Indian Ocean. The ship will stop daily during the SeaWiFS overpass (approximately noon) and every third day during the AVHRR overpass (mid-afternoon) to sample the upper water column. Many of the same measurements will continue in the Indian Ocean as part of INDOEX. Measurements include:
--atmospheric measurements of dimethylsulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ammonia, radon, nitrogen oxides, in-situ and column ozone, aerosol physical, optical and hygroscopic properties, total condensation nuclei population, cloud condensation nuclei population, aerosol optical depth, size resolved aerosol chemical composition including major anions and cations, mineral dust, and organic and elemental carbon, and aerosol backscatter, major cations and anions in precipitation,
--routine weather observations (air temperature, dew point temperature, wind speed and direction, barometric pressure and light levels at several spectra), and rawindsonde balloon launches for atmospheric temperature, dew point and winds,
--water leaving radiance, solar irradiance, diffuse sky radiance
--satellite observations of aerosol optical depth, aerosol number/size, ocean color.
--CTD/optical casts for up and downwelling radiance, PAR, fluoresence, transmisivity.
--CTD/rosette casts for chlorophyll, pigments, total absorption of suspended
material, nitrogen isotopes.
Aerosols and Climate -- Atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth's radiative balance both directly through the upward scatter of solar radiation and indirectly as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The natural aerosol derived from biogenic sulfur emissions has been substantially perturbed by anthropogenic aerosols, particularly sulfates from SO2 emissions and organic condensates and soot from biomass and fossil fuel combustion. The global mean radiative forcing due to the direct effect of anthropogenic sulfate aerosol particles is calculated to be of comparable magnitude but opposite in sign to the forcing due to anthropogenic CO2 and the other greenhouse gases. More uncertain is the radiative forcing due to the indirect cloud-mediated effects of aerosol particles. Although aerosol particles have a potential climatic importance over and down wind of industrial regions that is equal to that of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, they are still poorly characterized in global climate models. This is a result of a lack of both globally distributed data and a clear understanding of the processes linking gaseous precursor emissions, atmospheric aerosol properties, and the spectra of aerosol optical depth and cloud reflectivity. At this time, tropospheric aerosols pose one of the largest uncertainties in model calculations of the climate forcing due to anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere. Clearly, considerable attention must be focused on quantifying the processes controlling the natural and anthropogenic aerosol and on defining and minimizing the uncertainties in the calculated climate forcings.
The primary goal of this cruise is to make in-situ measurements of the chemical, physical, optical and cloud-nucleating properties of aerosols in the marine boundary layer of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Total column aerosol properties will be assessed remotely using shipboard sunphotometers and LIDAR and satellite observations (SeaWiFS and AVHRR). Aerosol data in these regions of the ocean are extremely sparse which currently limits our ability to constrain chemical transport and radiative transfer models. The data obtained on this cruise will provide regional means and variability of aerosol precursor gases and aerosol properties as a function of airmass origin. The data will ultimately yield more realistic estimates of the forcing of climate by aerosols relative to recent estimates (e.g., IPCC(1995)) which rely for the most part on estimated global mean aerosol optical properties.
Trace Gases and Climate -- Trace gases in the marine boundary layer affect the Earth’s radiative and chemical balance by absorbing the long-wave radiation leaving the Earth (green-house gases) and by altering the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. The concentrations of these chemically reactive and infrared-active trace gases are increasing in the atmosphere due to anthropogenic activities. There is considerable scientific evidence that the increasing atmospheric concentrations of these gases will lead to a global warming which could have disruptive consequences world-wide. Predicting future concentrations of these gases and their potential climatic effects requires an improved understanding of their atmospheric sources and sinks and the processes controlling their concentrations. The goals of the trace gas programs participating in this cruise are:
Ozonesondes profiles will comprise unique data; such launches have been performed previously on Europe-to-South America cruises but not from North America to southern Africa and thence to the Indian Ocean. The mid-latitude-sub-tropical-tropical transition in ozone profiles is of interest to researchers using global and regional models to study ozone transport and for development of aerosol and tropospheric ozone satellite products from TOMS (see http://jwocky.gsfc.nasa.gov for aerosol products). New tropical tropospheric ozone maps (TTO; http://metosrv2.umd.edu/~tropo) will be validated with the daily ozone profile data to be collected on the cruise. The MicroTOPS record of total column ozone and the ozonesonde data set will be part of the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes) TOMS validation project. SHADOZ ground sites at Natal (Brazil, 6° S, 35° W), Ascension Island (8S, 15° W), and Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E) are very close to the cruise track.
Additional SHADOZ data to be taken during the cruise will be at Kashidoo Observatory in the Maldives, at Watukosek (Indonesia, 7° S, 112° E), and at Fiji, Tahiti, American Samoa, Galapagos and Easter Island. The latter five sites are part of the NASA PEM-Tropics B DC-8 campaign which will coincide with the either the latter part of this cruise and the INDOEX cruise. The Japanese SOWER project is supplying ozone launches at Galapagos and hopes to launch in the January-March time frame on Christmas Island as well. These ozone profiles, with the complete SHADOZ data set, and the unique contribution of the ozonesondes launched on this cruise, will make the January-February 1999 period unprecedented in longitudinal and latitudinal ozonesonde coverage in the southern hemisphere tropics and sub-tropics.
2.1 Participating Organizations:
|NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Lab., Seattle, WA||(PMEL)|
|University of Washington, Seattle, WA||(UW)|
|Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA||(NPGS)|
|Joint Institute Study Atmosphere Ocean, Seattle, WA||(JISAO)|
|Inst. for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig, Germany||(IfT)|
|Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden||(MISU)|
|University of Maryland, College Park, MD||(UMD)|
|Princeton University, Princeton, NJ||(PU)|
|NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD||(NASA)|
|Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA||(SIO)|
|NOAA Climate Mon. & Diag. Lab., Boulder, CO||(CMDL)|
|NOAA Atlantic Ocean. & Met. Lab., Miami, FL||(AOML)|
|Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany||(MPI)|
|NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, Silver Springs, MD||(ARL)|
|University of Miami, Miami, FL||(UM)|
|University of Bremen, Germany||(IUP)|
|Brookhaven National Laboratory||(BNL)|
2.2 Participating Scientists
|Name||Gender||Nationality||Affiliation||Leg 1||Leg 2|
|Dr. Timothy Bates||M||USA||PMEL||X||X|
|Dr. James Johnson||M||USA||JISAO/PMEL||X||X|
|Mr. Derek Coffman||M||USA||JISAO/PMEL||X||X|
|Dr. Theresa Miller||F||USA||JISAO/PMEL||X||X|
|Mr. Drew Hamilton||M||USA||JISAO/PMEL||X||X|
|Dr. Zhen Yang||M||China||NRC/PMEL||X||X|
|Dr. Anne Thompson||F||USA||NASA||X|
|Dr. Martina Schmeling||F||Germany||PU||X|
|Mr. Andreas Massling||M||Germany||IfT||X||X|
|Mr. Andreas Nowak||M||Germany||IfT||X||X|
|Mr. Stephan Leinert||M||Germany||IfT||X||X|
|Mr. Michael Norman||M||Sweden||MISU||X||X|
|Dr. Anders Karlsson||M||Sweden||MISU||X||X|
|Dr. Bruce Doddridge||M||Australia||UMD||X||X|
|Dr. Russell Dickerson||M||USA||UMD||X|
|Dr. Winston Luke||M||USA||ARL||X|
|Ms. Wilnetta Ball||F||USA||UMD||X|
|Mr. Charles Piety||M||USA||UMD||X||X|
|Dr. Robert Frouin||M||USA||SIO||X||X|
|Mr. Alexandre Paci||M||France||SIO||X||X|
|Dr. Greg Mitchell||M||USA||SIO||X|
|Dr. Tom Carsey||M||USA||AOML||X|
|Mr. Mike Shoemaker||M||USA||AOML||X|
|Mr. Mike Farmer||M||USA||AOML||X|
|Dr. Volker Wagner||M||Germany||MPI||X|
|Dr. Corinne Schiller||F||Canada||MPI||X|
|Dr. Uwe Parchatka||M||Germany||MPI||X|
|Dr. Andreas Zahn||M||Germany||MPI||X|
|Dr. Mike Reynolds||M||USA||BLN||X|
|Dr. Ken Voss||M||USA||UM||X|
|Dr. Ellsworth Welton||M||USA||UM||X|
|Mr. Bob Castle||M||USA||AOML||X||X|
|Dr. Lola Hernandez||F||Spanish||IUP||X||X|
|Mr. Lars Reichert||M||German||IUP||X|
|Mr. Jorn Burkert||M||German||IUP||X|
|Leg 1 (26 days)||Norfolk, Virginia
14 January 1999
|Cape Town, South Africa
8 February 1999
|Leg 2 (10 days)||Cape Town, South Africa
11 February 1999
|Port Louis, Mauritius
20 February 1999
total sea/ship days 36 (+ 2 days in South Africa)
4.1 Underway Measurements
The following continuous measurements will be made aboard RONALD H. BROWN during transit and while on station:
Atmospheric Chemical Measurements
Mass size distributions of metals by trace metal TXRF with a seven stage multi-jet cascade impactor at 55% RH. Sampling time periods will range from 12 to 24 hours. (Russell, PU)
Sub- and super-micron nss sulfate, MSA, ammonium, and other major ions with a two stage multi-jet cascade impactor. Upper size cuts will be 1.0 and 10.0 m m diameter at 55% RH. Sampling time periods will be 4 to 6 hours. (Quinn, PMEL)
Sub- and super-micron nss sulfate, MSA, ammonium, and other major ions with a two stage filter pack mounted outside at ambient RH. Sampling time periods will be approximately 24 hours. (Leck, MISU)
Sub- and super-micron elemental and organic carbon by combustion and Raman spectroscopy. Upper size cuts will be 1.0 and 10.0 m m diameter at 55% RH. Sampling time periods will be 12 to 24 hours. (Wiedenshohler, IfT)
Sub- and super-micron mineral dust using XRF and SEM/XRF. (Quinn, PMEL)
Gas phase measurements of SO2 and NH3 (Leck, MISU), DMS (Bates, PMEL),
O3 (surface and vertical profiles with MicroTops and ozonesondes)(Johnson,
JISAO & Thompson, NASA), PAN and nitrogen oxides (Carsey & Farmer,
AOML), 222Rn (Johnson & Hamilton, JISAO & Whittleson,
ANSTO), CO2 (Feely, PMEL and Wanninkhof, AOML), CO, SO2, jNO2 (Dickerson,
UMD), H2CO, H2O2, NO2, and CO by TDLA (Fischer, MPI, Leg 2 only), j(O3)
using filter radiometers (Fischer, MPI, Leg 2 only), Rox (Burrows, Bremen).
Total number concentration of CN with Dp>15 nm and CN with Dp>5 nm using TSI 3010 and 3025 particle counters, respectively. (Bates, PMEL & Covert, UW)
Particle number size distribution from 5 to 5000 nm diameter using an UDMPS, DMPS, and TSI 3300 APS. (2 systems, dry and 55% RH) (Bates, PMEL; Covert, UW; Wiedensohler, IfT)
Particle number size distribution from 200 to 20000 nm using a CSASP-200 PMS probe (Durkee, NPGS)
Hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles with TDMA. (Wiedensohler, IfT)
Total aerosol light scattering and the backscattered fraction at wavelengths of 450, 550, and 700 nm.(Quinn, PMEL)
Total aerosol light absorption at 500 nm using a PSAP. (Quinn, PMEL)
Aerosol optical depth with hand-held sunphotometers. (Quinn, PMEL)
AVHRR and SeaWiFS satellite observations of aerosol optical depth, aerosol number/size (Johnson, PMEL; Durkee, NPGS).
Aerosol backscatter using Micro-Pulse LIDAR (Voss, UM)
Ammonia (Quinn, PMEL)
pCO2, chlorophyll, oxygen (Feely, PMEL & Wanninkhof, AOML)
Fluoresence, transmisivity, chlorophyll, HPLC pigments, total absorption of suspended matter in the upper water column (Frouin, SIO)
Nitrogen isotopic composition of DON and nitrate (Sigman, PU)
Solar irradiance and diffuse sky radiance spectra at several wavelengths using a PREDE system (Frouin, SIO)
Solar irradiance and diffuse sky radiance spectra at several wavelengths using a sky rads system and the aureole system (Voss, UM)
Up and downwelling radiance and PAR in the upper water column (Frouin, SIO)
Shortwave global irradiance in six 10 nm bands, one broadband, and from
an Eppley PSP using a Portable Radiation Package (PRP) with a Fast Rotating
Shadowband Radiometer (FRSR) (Reynolds, BNL)
Vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature, dew point and winds (Johnson, JISAO).
Surface seawater temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a, and nitrate (Johnson
& Hamilton, JISAO).
Atmospheric samples will also be collected from the AOML bow tower. The tower will be installed on the ship before departure from the U.S.
Ship and scientific personnel must constantly be aware of potential sample contamination. Work activities forward of the main stack must be secured during sampling operations. This includes the bow, boat deck forward of the stack, bridge deck and flying bridge. The scientists on watch must be notified of any change in ship course or speed that will move the relative wind abaft the ship's beam or if anyone needs access to the bow. The scientists on watch should also be notified when the ship enters a rain squall and when the rain subsides.
Continuous water sampling will be made from the ship's bow intake system. This system must be capable of delivering 75 liters per minute through the main deck piping. Seawater will be drawn off this line to the Al Van on 01 level port side and the sea/air CO2 equilibrator in the hydro lab. Care must be taken to prevent contamination from smoke, solvent, cleaning solutions, etc.
4.2 Station Operations
A CTD/optics (SIO CTD deployed from stern A-frame) and a CTD/rosette (ship’s system deployed from starboard side) cast will be made each day at the time of the SeaWiFS satellite overpass. On clear days an in-water radiance distribution camera system will be deployed from the stern. This package is placed in the water and floated away, while tethered, from the ship. Atmospheric and surface seawater sampling will continue while on station. The ship will remain headed into the wind to prevent contamination from the ship's exhaust and vents. Again, extreme care must be exercised to prevent contamination of the air samples. The scientists on watch must be notified of any ship operation that will move the relative wind abaft the ship's beam.
CTD operations will be conducted by the survey department and scientists from SIO. Maximum cast depth for the CTD/rosette cast will be 300m with most samples collected in the photic zone (6-8 depths). Water from the rosette cast will be sampled for chlorophyll, HPLC pigments, and absorption by total suspended matter.
An additional station will occur every third day during the AVHRR overpass (mid-afternoon). A CTD/optics and CTD/rosette cast will be performed if the sky is clear.
4.3 Balloon Launches
Atmospheric temperature, humidity and wind profiles will be obtained
from rawindsondes released from the ASAP van twice per day at 1100 and
2300 UCT. The data from these launches will be sent by the ship to the
national weather service. An ozonesonde will be launched from the ship’s
fantail once per day by NASA personnel.
5.1 Equipment and capabilities to be provided by ship
The following systems and their associated support services are essential to the cruise. Sufficient consumables, back-up units, and on-site spare parts and technical support must be in place to assure that operational interruptions are minimal. All measurement instruments are expected to have current calibrations and all pertinent calibration information shall be included in the data package.
(a) Navigational systems including high resolution GPS.
(d) Thermosalinograph calibrated to within 0.1°C and 0.01 ppt.
(e) Dry compressed air (120 psi, 4 CFM) to the pump van. Power, water and telephone connections to vans (see section 5.2).
(f) Continuously flowing seawater to the vans and equilibrator (minimum of 75 liters per minute).
(g) Laboratory/work space.
(h) Freezer space for air and seawater samples.
(i) Refrigerator space (10 cubic feet) for air samples (no chemicals).
5.2 Equipment, capabilities and supplies provided by scientific party
|1) Chemistry van (AL van)|
|size||8' X 20'|
|power||30 amps 480 v three phase|
|location||port side 01 level|
|Needs freshwater and clean seawater
lines and phone.
Load in Seattle Offload at end of field season
|2) Aerosol van|
|size||8' X 18'|
|power||50 amp 448 v three phase|
|location||port side 02 level|
|Needs a phone and freshwater.
Load in Seattle, Offload at end of field season
|3) Pump van|
|size||7' X 12'|
|power||From aerosol van|
|location||aft of Aerosol van, 02 level|
|Needs compressed air (120 psi/4
Load in Seattle, Offload at end of field season
|4) Spare parts/storage van,|
|size||8' X 20'|
|location||port side, 01 level|
|Load in Seattle, Offload at end of field season|
|5) Ammonia-Sulfur Dioxide van,|
|size||8' x 10'|
|power||480 v, 30 amps single phase|
|location||port side, 02 level|
|Needs phone, fresh water
Load in Seattle, Offload at end of field season
|6) AOML van|
|Size||12' x 8’|
|Power||480 v, 30 amps single phase|
|Load in Norfolk, Offload at end
of field season or in Darwin if space is not available
Needs freshwater line and phone.
|7) MPI Van|
|Size||8’ x 20'|
|Power||from MPI power/nitrogen van|
|needs phone, compressed air and
Load in Cape Town, Offload at end of INDOEX
|8) MPI power/nitrogen Van|
|size||8’ x 20'|
|power||480 v, 30KVA|
|needs compressed air
Load in Cape Town, Offload at end of field season
|9) SIO Van|
|size||7.5’ x 13.5'|
|power||480 v, 30 amp, single phase|
|needs phone and fresh water
Load in Norfolk, Offload at end of INDOEX
(c) Chemical analysis instrumentation including gas chromatographs, equilibrators, ion chromatographs, glove boxes, autoanalyzers, fluorometers, and pH meter.
(d) Chemical reagents, compressed gases (approximately 140 cylinders), and liquid nitrogen (1000 liters). A complete listing of all chemicals to be brought onboard is included in Appendix B. Material Data Safety Sheets will be provided to ship before any chemicals are loaded.
(e) CTD/Optics system and winch (480 V, 20 amps, 4’x4’ footprint, 3500 lbs)
(f) Bow tower to be mounted in Norfolk.
Samplers on tower:
Portable Radiation Package (PRP)
CSASP (NPGS) for aerosol number size distribution
Rainwater collectors (MISU)
IMPROVE aerosol sampler
(g) Micropulse LIDAR to be mounted on 03 level forward.
6.1 Data responsibilities
The Chief Scientist is responsible for the disposition, feedback on data quality, and archiving of data and specimens collected on board the ship for the primary project. The Chief Scientist is also responsible for the dissemination of copies of these data to participants on the cruise and to any other requesters. The ship will assist in copying data and reports insofar as facilities allow. The ship will provide the Chief Scientist copies of the following data:
Sightings log (position, speed, course, distance upwind) of other vessels
Autosal salinity analysis logs
Navigational log sheets (MOAs)
Weather observation sheets
Autosal calibration reports
Thermosalinograph calibration reports
CTD cast logs
CTD calibration reports
CTD data in ASCII format
SCS data tapes
The Chief Scientist will receive all original data gathered by the ship for the primary and piggy-back projects, and this data transfer will be documented on NOAA form 61-29 "Letter Transmitting Data". The Chief Scientist in turn will furnish the ship a complete inventory listing of all data gathered by the scientific party, detailing types and quantities of data.
The Commanding Officer is responsible for all data collected for ancillary projects until those data have been transferred to the projects' principal investigators or their designees. Data transfers will be documented on NOAA Form 61-29. Copies of ancillary project data will be provided to the Chief Scientist when requested. Reporting and sending copies of ancillary data to NESDIS (ROSCOP) is the responsibility of the program office sponsoring those projects.
6.2 Ship operation evaluation report
A Ship Operations Evaluation Report will be completed by the Chief Scientist and given to the Director, PMEL, for review and then forwarded to NC3.
6.3 Foreign research clearance reports
A request for research clearance in foreign waters (United Kingdom for
Ascension Island and St. Helena, Nambia, S. Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique,
Madagascar, France for Reunion Island and Mauritius) has been submitted
by PMEL. Copies of clearances received will be provided to the FOO before
departure. The Chief Scientist is responsible for satisfying the post-cruise
obligations associated with diplomatic clearances to conduct research operations
in foreign waters. These obligations consist of (1) submitting a "Preliminary
Cruise Report" immediately following the completion of the cruise involving
the research in foreign waters (due at ONCO within 30 days); and (2) ultimately
meeting the commitments to submit data copies of the primary project to
the host foreign countries.
7.0 ADDITIONAL INVESTIGATIONS AND PROJECTS
Any additional work will be subordinate to the primary project and will be accomplished only with the concurrence of the Chief Scientist and Commanding Officer on a not-to-interfere basis.
The following ancillary projects will be conducted by ship's personnel
in accordance with general instructions contained in the PMC OPORDER:
|(a) SEAS Data Collection and Transmission||(PMC OPORDER 1.2.1)|
|(b) Marine Mammal Reporting||(PMC OPORDER 1.2.2)|
|(c) Sea Turtle Observations||(SP-PMC-2-89)|
|(d) Bathymetric Trackline||(PMC OPORDER 1.2.5)|
7.1 No ancillary projects are assigned.
The ship is equipped with INMARSAT, a telephone / teletype satellite communication system. If the scientific staff uses this system, they will be obligated to pay for their calls, which are estimated at $6.02 per minute for voice or rapid fax and $4.00 per minute for Telex. The Chief Scientist or designee will have access to and assistance provided for transmitting and receiving communications through INMARSAT as needed during the cruise. The ship’s INMARSAT number is 011-sat-154-2643 (voice) 011-sat-154-2644 (fax) where sat is the satellite = 872 (Pacific West), 871 (Atlantic East), or 873 (Indian).
The ship has recently been equipped with INMARSAT M capabilities. The cost is estimated at $2.99 per minute. The INMARSAT M telephone number is 011-sat-761-266-581.
An account for ccmail for embarked personnel will be established by the RONALD H. BROWN Electronics Technician; the general format is firstname.lastname@example.org. Ccmail will be sent and received two times per day.
9.0 HAZARDOUS MATERIAL
The RONALD H BROWN will operate in full compliance with all environmental compliance requirements imposed by NOAA. All hazardous materials/substances needed to carry out the objectives of the embarked science mission, including ancillary tasks, are the direct responsibility of the embarked designated Chief Scientist, whether or not that Chief Scientist is using them directly. The RONALD H BROWN Environmental Compliance Officer will work with the Chief Scientist to ensure that this management policy is properly executed, and that any problems are brought promptly to the attention of the Commanding Officer.
All hazardous materials require a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Copies of all MSDSs shall be forwarded to the ship at least two weeks prior to sailing. The Chief Scientist shall have copies of each MSDS available when the hazardous materials are loaded aboard. Hazardous material for which the MSDS is not provided will not be loaded aboard.
The Chief Scientist will complete a local inventory form, provided by the Commanding Officer, indicating the amount of each material brought onboard, and for which the Chief Scientist is responsible. This inventory shall be updated at departure, accounting for the amount of material being removed, as well as the amount consumed in science operations and the amount being removed in the form of waste. A list of chemicals and gases that will be brought onboard the ship for this cruise is listed in B. PMEL gases and chemicals will be loaded in Seattle; CO2-AOML, AOML, UMD, MISU, PU gases and chemicals will be loaded in Norfolk; MPI gases and chemicals will be loaded in Cape Town.
The ship’s dedicated HAZMAT Locker contains two 45-gallon capacity flam cabinets and one 22-gallon capacity flam material cabinet, plus some available storage on the deck. Unless there are dedicated storage lockers (meeting OSHA/NFPA standards) in each van, all HAZMAT, except small amounts for ready use, must be stored in the HAZMAT Locker.
The scientific party, under the supervision of the Chief Scientist, shall be prepared to respond fully to emergencies involving spills of any mission HAZMAT. This includes providing properly-trained personnel for response, as well as the necessary neutralizing chemicals and clean-up materials. Ship’s personnel are not first responders and will act in a support role only, in the event of a spill. Drew Hamilton, Derek Coffman, and Theresa Miller have been trained in hazardous material response.
The Chief Scientist is directly responsible for the proper handling, both administrative and physical, of all scientific party hazardous wastes. No liquid wastes shall be introduced into the ship’s drainage system. No solid waste material shall be placed in the ship’s garbage.
10.0 RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPE POLICY
1. The BROWN has no specially designated lab space for working with isotopes. We will therefore require that all radioisotope work be done in a dedicated van with its own storage area and separate waste discharge. The policy is consistent with that of the UNOLS fleet. All of the waste should remain segregated from the ship's waste and be packed out by the investigator;
2. Each scientist working with these materials will be required to wear a lab coat and disposable booties to reduce the likelihood of tracking the substance out of the van into the ship;
3. It will be the responsibility of the investigator to conduct pre-cruise (for background) and post-cruise wipe tests (regardless of whether a spill occurred or not). Wipe tests should also be conducted in the event of a spill, as well as periodically while underway.
4. A detailed procedural methodology describing the use of these materials should be provided to the ship for review at least one month prior to bringing them aboard. A spill contingency plan should also be provided at that time. Please note that ship's personnel will not be a cleanup resource in the event of a spill;
5. A log detailing the type and amount of materials brought aboard and taken off the ship should be maintained, along with a record of any spills that occurred;
6. All radioisotope work will be conducted by NRC or State licensed
investigators only, and copies of these licenses shall be provided to the
ship at least one month prior to bringing any materials onboard.
11.1 Radio interference
Radio transmission can interfere with several of the continuous data streams. If this becomes a problem, the Commanding Officer and Chief Scientist will work out a transmission schedule to minimize data interferences to the extent that vessel communication needs allow.
11.2 Pre & post-cruise meetings
A pre-cruise meeting between the Commanding Officer and the Chief Scientist will be conducted either the day before or the day of departure, with the express purpose of identifying day-to-day project requirements, in order to best use shipboard resources and identify overtime needs.
A post-cruise debriefing will be held between the Chief Scientist and the Commanding Officer.
11.3 Scientific berthing
The Chief Scientist is responsible for assigning berthing for the scientific party within the spaces approved as dedicated scientific berthing. The ship will send stateroom diagrams to the Chief Scientist showing authorized berthing spaces. The Chief Scientist is responsible for returning the scientific berthing spaces back over to the ship in the condition in which they were received; for stripping bedding and for linen return; and for the return of any room keys which were issued.
The Chief Scientist is also responsible for the cleanliness of the laboratory spaces and storage areas used by the science party, both during the cruise and at its conclusion prior to departing the ship.
In accordance with NC Instruction 5255.0, Controlled Substances Aboard NOAA Vessels, dated 06 August 1985, all persons boarding NOAA vessels give implied consent to conform with all safety and security policies and regulations which are administered by the Commanding Officer. All spaces and equipment on the vessel are subject to inspection or search at any time.
11.4 Emergency contacts
Prior to departure, the Chief Scientist must provide a listing of emergency contacts to the Executive Officer for all members of the scientific party, with the following information: name, address, relationship to member, and telephone number. These can be combined with the NOAA Health Services Questionnaire on the forms provided.
11.5 Weather deck Safety
Wearing open-toed footwear (such as sandals) on the weather decks is unsafe and is not permitted. This shipboard safety regulation is included in the Commanding Officer’s Standing Orders, and will be enforced. All members of the scientific party are expected to be aware of this regulation and to comply with it.
11.6 Wage marine dayworker working hours and rest periods
Chief Scientists shall be cognizant of the reduced capability of the RONALD H BROWN’s operating crew to support 24-hour mission activities with a high tempo of deck operations at all hours. Wage marine employees are subject to negotiated work rules contained in the applicable collective bargaining agreement. Dayworkers’ hours of duty are a continuous eight-hour period, beginning no earlier than 0600 and ending no later than 1800. It is not permissible to separate such an employee’s workday into several short work periods with interspersed nonwork periods. Dayworkers called out to work between the hours of 0000 and 0600 are entitled to a rest period of one hour for each such hour worked. Such rest periods begin at 0800 and will result in no dayworkers being available to support science operations until the rest period has been observed. All wage marine employees are supervised and assigned work only by the Commanding Officer or designee. The Chief Scientist and the Commanding Officer shall consult regularly to ensure that the shipboard resources available to support the embarked mission are utilized safely, efficiently and with due economy.
(A) Cruise track
(B) List of chemicals onboard
(C) Van locations
13.0 APPROVAL OF INSTRUCTIONS
Approval of the final instructions shall be acknowledged in writing:
Rear Admiral John C. Albright, NOAA (date)
Director, Atlantic and Pacific Marine Centers
Dr. Eddie N. Bernard, NOAA (data)
Director, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory
Appendix A. Cruise Track
|carbon dioxide||2 tanks||PMEL||Aero van|
|helium||1 tank||MISU||NH3 van|
|helium||8 tanks||PMEL||AL van|
|breathing air||3 tanks||PMEL||AL van|
|balloon helium||60 tanks||PMEL||fantail|
|propane||1 tank||PU||Aero van|
|CO standard in nitrogen (5ppm)||1 tank||UMD||AOML van|
|oxygen||6 tanks||AOML||AOML van|
|zero-air||10 tanks||AOML||AOML van|
|NO in nitrogen (10 ppm)||1 tank||AOML||AOML van|
|nitrogen||1 tank||UM||03 deck|
|nitrogen||1 tank||MISU||NH3 van|
|nitrogen||2 tanks||CO2-AOML||Hydro lab|
|standard air tanks||8 tanks||CO2-AOML||Hydro lab|
|CO||4 tanks||IUP||AOML van|
|NO in nitrogen (600 ppm)||2 tanks||IUP||AOML van|
|nitrogen||9 tanks||IUP||AOML van|
|zero-air||21 tanks||IUP||AOML van|
|liquid nitrogen||2 180 L||SIO||main lab|
|liquid nitrogen||6 180L tanks||MPI||main lab|
|CO standard in air (5 ppm)||1 tank||UMD||AOML van|
|SO2 standard in air (5 0ppm)||1 tank||UMD||AOML van|
|NO standard in nitrogen (8 ppmv)||1 tank||MPI||MPI van|
|NO2 standard in nitrogen (10 ppmv)||1 tank||MPI||MPI van|
|CO standard in nitrogen (200 ppmv)||1 tank||MPI||MPI van|
|Synthetic air||2 tanks||MPI||MPI van|
|CO||2 tanks||MPI||MPI van|
|CH4||2 tanks||MPI||MPI van|
|N2O||2 tanks||MPI||MPI van|
|NO2||1 tank||MPI||MPI van|
|CO2||2 tanks||MPI||MPI van|
|acetone||8 l||PMEL||Main Lab|
|acetone||4 l||CO2-AOML||Hydro Lab|
|acetone||2.5 l||MISU||NH3 van|
|acetone||5 l||SIO||SIO van|
|acetonitrile||1 l||MPI||MPI van|
|ammonium chloride||500 g||PMEL||AL van|
|ammonium sulfate||1 kg||PMEL||AL van|
|borax||1 kg||MISU||NH3 van|
|butanol||32 l||PMEL||Ship’s HML|
|carbon 14||25 mci||SIO||SIO van|
|cadmium||250 g||PMEL||AL van|
|calcium sulfate (drierite)||10 kg||PMEL||AL van|
|charcoal||500 g||PMEL||AL van|
|chromotropic acid||25g||MPI||MPI van|
|citric acid||2 kg||PMEL||AL van|
|Coulometer solution||8 l||CO2-AOML||Hydro Lab|
|cupric sulfate||500 g||PMEL||AL van|
|dimethylsulfide||25 ml||PMEL||AL van|
|drierite||800 g||MISU||NH3 van|
|EDTA||300 g||MISU||NH3 van|
|ethanol||10 l||MISU||NH3 van|
|ethanol||6 l||SIO||SIO van|
|ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)||25 g||PMEL||AL van|
|ferric sulfate||500 g||IUP||AOML van|
|formaldehyde 37%||2 l||MISU||NH3 van|
|formaldehyde 37%||1 l||MPI||MPI van|
|glycerin||2 g on filters||UMD||AOML van|
|glycerol (30%)||1 l||SIO||SIO van|
|hexane||1 l||PMEL||AL van|
|hydrochloric acid||5 l||PMEL||AL van|
|hydrochloric acid||2 l||SIO||SIO van|
|hydrochloric acid (37%)||1 l||MPI||MPI van|
|hydrochloric acid (50%)||1 l||PU||Main Lab|
|hydrogen peroxide (33%)||4 l||PMEL||AL van|
|hydrogen peroxide (50%)||0.1 l||MPI||MPI van|
|hydrogen peroxide (30%)||1 l||MPI||MPI van|
|isopropyl alcohol||4 l||PMEL||AL van|
|isopropyl alcohol||500 ml||PU||Aero van|
|isopropyl alcohol||2 l||CO2-AOML||Hydro Lab|
|isopropyl alcohol||1 l||IUP||AOML van|
|luminol||100 g||IUP||AOML van|
|magnesium perchlorate||1 kg||CO2-AOML||Hydro Lab|
|methanesulfonic acid||500 ml||PMEL||AL van|
|methanol||7 l||PMEL||AL van|
|methanol||10 l||SIO||SIO van|
|methanol||500 ml||PU||Aero van|
|methanol||60 l||MISU||Ship’s HML|
|N-1-naphthyl-ethylenediamine dihydrochloride||80 g||PMEL||AL van|
|nitric acid||500 ml||PU||Aero van|
|OPA||2 g||MISU||NH3 van|
|OPA||200 g||PMEL||Main lab|
|Oxalic acid 6.3% in water||2 x 100ml||MPI||MPI van|
|Palladium on alumina||500 g||UMD||AOML van|
|paraformaldehyde (30%)||1 l||MPI||MPI van|
|PEA (phenyl ethanol amine)||60 ml||SIO||SIO van|
|pH buffer solutions||1 l||MISU||NH3 van|
|pH buffer solutions||1.5 l||PMEL||Main lab|
|phosphoric acid||1 l||PMEL||AL van|
|platinum-aluminum oxide pellets||25 g||IUP||AOML van|
|potassium carbonate||2 kg||PMEL||AL van|
|potassium carbonate||2 g on filters||UMD||AOML van|
|potassium hydroxide||100 g||IUP||AOML van|
|potassium iodide||500 g||CO2-AOML||Hydro Lab|
|potassium iodate||25 g||PMEL||AL van|
|potassium permanganate 6.3% in water||3 x 50ml||MPI||MPI van|
|scintillation cocktaim||12 l||SIO||SIO van|
|silica gel||2 kg||MPI||MPI van|
|sodium acetate||2 kg||MISU||NH3 van|
|sodium bisulfite 39% in water||1 l||MPI||MPI van|
|sodium citrate||2 kg||PMEL||Main lab|
|sodium hydroxide||2 kg||PMEL||AL van|
|sodium hydroxide 50%||2 l||MISU||NH3 van|
|sodium hydrogen phosphate||1 kg||MISU||NH3 van|
|sodium sulfite||1 kg||MISU||NH3 van|
|sodium sulfite||200g||PMEL||Main lab|
|sodium sulfite||100g||IUP||AOML van|
|sulfanilamide solution||80 l||PMEL||AL van|
|sulfuric acid||5 l||PMEL||AL van|
|sulfuric acid||2 l||MPI||MPI van|
|Titantetrachloride 34% in HCl (37%)||2x 0.5l||MPI||MPI van|
C. Van locations