Aerosol Characterization Experiment - Radiatively Important Trace Species
|NOAA Pacific Marine Environ. Lab., Seattle, WA||(PMEL)|
|University of Washington, Seattle, WA||(UW)|
|Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA||(NPGS)|
|Joint Institute Study Atmosphere Ocean, Seattle, WA||(JISAO)|
|Inst. for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig, Germany||(IfT)|
|Lund University, Lund, Sweden||(Lund)|
|University of Miami, Miami, FL||(RSMAS)|
|Mass. Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA||(MIT)|
|NOAA Atlantic Ocean. & Met. Lab., Miami, FL||(AOML)|
|National Center Atmos. Res., Boulder, CO||(NCAR)|
|NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID||(ARL)|
|Meteorological Observatory, Potsdam, Germany||(MOP)|
|Delhousie University, Halifax, Canada||(DU)|
|University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL||(USAl)|
|Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, MA||(WHOI)|
|Shizuoko University, Japan||(SU)|
|d. Seattle||11 Oct 1995|
|a. Hilo||21 Oct 1995|
|d. Hilo||22 Oct 1995|
|a. Hobart||10 Nov 1995|
|d. Hobart||15 Nov 1995|
|a. Hobart||14 Dec 1995|
The exchange of gases and particles between the ocean and atmosphere can affect the Earth's climate by modifying the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosol particles and by altering the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. This cruise will include measurements of sulfur, carbon, nitrogen and halogen compounds in the ocean and overlying atmosphere in order to quantify the cycling of these compounds in the surface ocean and atmosphere and to calculate the exchange of these compounds between the ocean and atmosphere. Atmospheric aerosol measurements will be used to document the chemical, physical and optical characteristics of remote marine aerosols, investigate the relationships between these aerosol properties, and to determine the key physical and chemical processes controlling their formation, distrbution, and radiative properties.
This cruise is part of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Programís Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-1). Shipboard measurements will be coordinated with aircraft and ground based measurements. The ship cruise track will consist of a trans-Pacific transit from Seattle to Hobart with a fueling stop in Hilo, HI. Seawater and air samples will be collected while the ship is underway and at daily CTD stations. The second leg of the cruise will be focused in the ACE-1 study area south of Tasmania and will include a stop at Macquarie Island.
|Ship Operations Contact:||Scientific Operations Contact:|
|Lt. John Herring||Dr. Timothy Bates (206-526-6248)|
|(206-553-4548)||Commander Dale Bretschneider (206-526-6813)|
|NOAA/PMC (PMC10||NOAA/PMEL (R/E/PM)|
|1801 Fairview Avenue East||7600 Sand Point Way N.E., Bldg. 3|
|Seattle, WA 98102||Seattle, WA 98115|
Aerosols and Climate -- Atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth's radiative balance both directly through the upward scatter of solar radiation and indirectly as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The natural aerosol derived from biogenic sulfur emissions has been substantially perturbed by anthropogenic aerosols, particularly sulfates from SO2 emissions and organic condensates and soot from biomass and fossil fuel combustion. The global mean radiative forcing due to the direct effect of anthropogenic sulfate aerosol particles is calculated to be of comparable magnitude but opposite in sign to the forcing due to anthropogenic CO2 and the other greenhouse gases. More uncertain is the radiative forcing due to the indirect cloud-mediated effects of aerosol particles. Although aerosol particles have a potential climatic importance over and down wind of industrial regions that is equal to that of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, they are still poorly characterized in global climate models. This is a result of a lack of both globally distributed data and a clear understanding of the processes linking gaseous precursor emissions, atmospheric aerosol properties, and the spectra of aerosol optical depth and cloud reflectivity. At this time, tropospheric aerosols pose one of the largest uncertainties in model calculations of the climate forcing due to anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere. Clearly, considerable attention must be focused on quantifying the processes controlling the natural and anthropogenic aerosol and on defining and minimizing the uncertainties in the calculated climate forcings. The Southern Hemisphere Marine Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-1) is the first of a series of experiments that will quantify the combined chemical and physical processes controlling the evolution and properties of the atmospheric aerosol relevant to radiative forcing and climate. The objectives of this series of process studies are to provide the necessary data to incorporate aerosols into global climate models and to reduce the overall uncertainty in the calculation of climate forcing by aerosols. The goal of ACE-1 is to document the chemical, physical, and optical characteristics and determine the controlling processes of the aerosol in the remote marine atmosphere.
RITS -- Trace gases in the marine boundary layer affect the Earthís radiative and chemical balance by absorbing the long-wave radiation leaving the Earth (green-house gases) and by altering the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. The concentrations of these chemically reactive and infrared-active trace gases are increasing in the atmosphere due to anthropogenic activities. There is considerable scientific evidence that the increasing atmospheric concentrations of these gases will lead to a global warming which could have disruptive consequences world-wide. Predicting future concentrations of these gases and their potential climatic effects requires an improved understanding of their atmospheric sources and sinks and the processes controlling their concentrations. The goals of the marine RITS program are:
1. to assess the oceanic sources and sinks of the radiatively and reactively important trace species,
2. assess the oceanic and atmospheric distributions and properties of the key species, and
3. to understand the processes controlling the oceanic and atmospheric concentrations and assess the sensitivity of these systems to anthropogenic and natural perturbations.
2.1 Chief Scientist
Dr. Timothy Bates (PMEL)
The Chief Scientist is authorized to alter the scientific portion of this cruise plan with the concurrence of the Commanding Officer, provided that the proposed changes will not: (1) jeopardize the safety of the personnel or the ship; (2) exceed the allotted time for the cruise; (3) result in undue additional expense; or (4) change the general intent of the cruise.
2.2 Participating Scientists
|Dr. Timothy Bates||M||USA||PMEL||X||X|
|Dr. Patricia Quinn||F||USA||PMEL||X||X|
|Dr. James Johnson||M||USA||JISAO/PMEL||X||X|
|Dr. Vladimir Kapustin||M||Russia||JISAO/PMEL||X||X|
|Mr. Michael Hamilton||M||USA||JISAO/PMEL||X||X|
|Mr. Drew Hamilton||M||USA||JISAO/PMEL||X||X|
|Ms. Karen Kreutzer||F||USA||UW/JISAO||X||X|
|Ms. Cynthia Graff||F||USA||UW/JISAO||X||X|
|Dr. Kris Hansen||F||USA||NRC/PMEL||X|
|Mr. Doug Orsini||M||USA||IfT||X||X|
|Mr. Olle Berg||M||Sweden||Lund||X|
|Dr. Warren De Bruyn||M||South Africa||RSMAS||X||X|
|Dr. Xian Shi||M||USA||MIT||X||X|
|Mr. Gary Kleiman||M||USA||MIT||X||X|
|Dr. Alex Pszenny||M||USA||MIT||X|
|Dr. Tom Carsey||M||USA||AOML||X||X|
|Mr. Mike Farmer||M||USA||AOML||X||X|
|Mr. Chuck Skupniewicz||M||USA||NPGS||X|
|Dr. Michael Weller||M||German||MOP||X|
|Dr. Randy Johnson||M||USA||ARL||X|
|Mr. Brian Jones||M||USA||USAl||X||X|
|Dr. Robert Moore||M||Canada||DU||X|
|Mr. Wayne Groszko||M||Canada||DU||X|
|Ms. Betsy Webb||F||Canada||DU||X|
|Mr. Stewart Niven||M||Canada||DU||X|
|Dr. Oliver Zafiriou||M||USA||WHOI||X|
|Mr. Masahito Taki||M||Japan||SU||X||X|
|Mr. Akihiro Terao||M||Japan||SU||X|
|Dr. Yoshimi Suzuki||M||Japan||SU||X|
|Mr. Fred Brechtel||M||USA||CSU||X*|
|Ms. Georgina Sturrock||F||British||NIWA||X*|
|Dr. Pai-Wei Whung||F||CIMAS||X*|
|Leg 1 (30 days)|
|11 October||Seattle, Washington|
|21 October||22 October||Hilo, HI (fuel stop)|
|10 November||Hobart, Australia|
|Leg 2 (30 days)|
|15 November||Hobart, Australia|
|18 November||18 November||Macquarie Island|
|14 December||Hobart, Australia|
|total sea/ship days 60|
A detailed analysis of transit times is included in Appendix B.
4.1 Underway Measurements
The following continuous measurements will be made aboard Discoverer during transit and while on station:
Atmospheric Chemical Measurements
Mass size distributions of nss sulfate, MSA, ammonium, and other major ions with a six-stage hi-vol cascade impactor. Sampling times will range from 2 to 6 hours. (Quinn & Hansen, PMEL for Sievering, UC)
Sub- and super-micron nss sulfate, MSA, ammonium, and other major ions with a two stage multi-jet cascade impactor. Upper size cuts will be 1.0 and 10.0 mm diameter. Sampling time periods will be 4 to 6 hours. (Quinn, PMEL)
The ammonium to nss sulfate molar ratio from 10 to 600 nm diameter using thermal conditioning in conjunction with a TDMA. (Orsini, ITR)
Single particle analysis using SEM/EDXA to characterize aerosol morphology, chemical composition, and aerodynamics. (Quinn & Hansen, PMEL for McInnes, UC)
Combustion analysis for sub-micron total organic and elemental carbon (Quinn & Hansen, PMEL) and total organic nitrogen and carbon (Suzuki, SU)
Solvent-soluble organics using GCMS (Hansen, PMEL)
Gas phase measurements of SO2 (De Bruyn & Saltzman, RSMAS), NH3 (Kreutzer & Quinn, PMEL/UW), DMS (Bates, PMEL), CO and O3 (surface and vertical profiles)(Johnson, JISAO), Alkenes (Graff & Johnson, JISAO/UW), NMHC (Shi, Kleiman, Pszenny & Prinn, MIT), PAN and nitrogen oxides (Carsey & Farmer, AOML), Rn (Bates & D.Hamilton, PMEL & Whittlestone, ANSTO), methyl halides (Moore, Groszko, & Webb, DU), CO2 (Feely, PMEL) carbon isotopes (Quay, UW).
Total number concentration of CN with Dp>15 nm and CN with Dp>3 nm using TSI 3760 and 3025 particle counters, respectively. (Kapustin, JISAO & Covert, UW)
Particle number size distribution from 3 to 10000 nm diameter using an UDMPS, standard DMPS, and TSI 3300 APS. (Kapustin, JISAO & Covert, UW)
Particle number size distribution from 200 to 20000 nm using a CSASP-200 PMS probe (Durkee & Skupniewicz, NPGS)
CCN number concentration at 0.65% supersaturation. (Kapustin, JISAO & Covert, UW)
Hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles with TDMA. (Krejci, Berg & Swietlicki, LU)
Total light scattering and the backscattered fraction at wavelengths of 450, 550, and 700 nm.(Quinn and Bates, PMEL)
Total light scattering at low reference RH and at higher RH values using dual Radiance Research Corporation nephelometers. (Kapustin, JISAO & Covert, UW)
Aerosol optical depth with hand-held and sun-seeking sunphotometers. (Quinn, PMEL & Dutton, CMDL; Porter, UH; Weller, MOP)
CO oxidation rates (Zafiriou, WHOI, Leg I only)
NH3 and pH (Kreutzer & Quinn, PMEL/UW)
DMS (Bates, PMEL)
CO (Johnson, JISAO)
Alkenes (Graff & Johnson, JISAO/UW)
NMHC (Shi, Kleiman, Pszenny & Prinn, MIT)
Methyl halides (Moore, Groszko, & Webb, DU, Leg I only)
pCO2 (Feely, PMEL)
POC, PON, POS, DOC, DON, DOS (Suzuki, SU)
Vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature, dew point and winds, UHF/VHF Doppler wind profiler, radio acoustic sounding system (NCAR).
Cloud cover using total-sky camera (D.Hamilton, PMEL).
Surface seawater temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a, and nitrate (Bates & D.Hamilton, PMEL.
Satellite observations of aerosol optical depth, aerosol number/size (Skupniewicz & Durkee, NPGS, Leg 1 only).
Smart balloon releases (R.Johnson, ARL, leg 2 only).
Air samples will be collected using equipment mounted on the forward part of the flying bridge and G-deck. A mast will extend approximately 8 meters above G deck for air sampling lines. Additional air sampling lines will run from the flying bridge to the oceanographic laboratories and laboratory van on G-deck port side. A compressor will be located on the starboard shelter deck to fill aluminum gas cylinders for carbon isotope samples. The compressor requires 30amps at 110 volts.
Ship and scientific personnel must constantly be aware of potential sample contamination. Work activities forward of the main stack must be secured during sampling operations. This includes the bow, boat deck forward of the stack, bridge deck and flying bridge. The scientists on watch must be notified of any change in ship course or speed that will move the relative wind abaft the ship's beam or if anyone needs access to the bow. The scientists on watch should also be notified when the ship enters a rain squall and when the rain subsides.
Continuous water sampling will be made from the ship's bow intake system. This system must be capable of delivering 100 liters per minute through the F deck piping. Seawater will be drawn off this line to the vans on G deck and to three sea/air equilibrators located on the F shelter deck starboard side. Care must be taken to prevent contamination from smoke, solvent, cleaning solutions, etc.
Continuous underway measurements of CO2 will be made from one of the headspace equilibrators on F deck utilizing a LICOR NDIR Analyzer. The instrument will be operated and maintained by the Survey Department in the same manner as during the previous TAO cruise.
4.2 Station Operations
A CTD cast will be made each day during Leg I. Atmospheric and surface seawater sampling will continue while on station. The ship will remain headed into the wind to prevent contamination from the ship's exhaust and vents. Again, extreme care must be exercised to prevent contamination of the air samples. The scientists on watch must be notified of any ship operation that will move the relative wind abaft the ship's beam.
CTD operations will be conducted by the survey department. Maximum cast depth will be 500m with most samples collected in the photic zone (5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 500 m). Water from the cast will be sampled for carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations, CO production and consumption rates, halocarbons, and chlorophyll. An internally logging fluorometer and irradiance meter will be attached to the rosette. Every third day an additional cast will be made to 150m to collect a large volume (all bottles) water sample. At these stations a vertical net tow will be made to 100m to collect plankton samples.
4.3 Kilaeua Operations
The plume from the Kilaeua volcano on the island of Hawaii will be monitored by satellite imagery. When Discover reaches the center of the plume along 160įW, the ship will turn into the wind and proceed slowly towards the volcano for a 24 hour sampling period. At the end of the sampling period, the ship will head for Hilo to refuel.
4.4 Balloon Launches
Atmospheric temperature, humidity and wind profiles will be obtained from rawindsondes released from the ship twice per day at 1100 and 2300 UCT. Additional rawindsonde launches will occur during intensive sampling periods. Constant density balloons will be launched during leg II to start the lagrangian experiments. In addition, approximately 15 ozonesondes will be released throughout the cruise. Balloons will be filled and launched from the balloon shack.
4.5 Macquarie Island Operations
At the beginning of Leg II, Discoverer will proceed directly to Macquarie Island to disembark scientists and equipment. The scientists will return to Hobart on the Australia supply ship at the conclusion of ACE-1.
4.6 ACE-1 Operations
ACE-1 measurements will be conducted from Discoverer, the Australian FRV Southern Surveyor, the NCAR C-130 aircraft, and ground-based stations at Cape grim, Macquarie Island, and Baring Head (New Zealand). Discovererís general operating area is shown in dotted box of figure 1. Discoverer shiptime during the ACE-1 intensive will be used for:
2. Chemical, physical and optical measurements of the atmospheric aerosol to address the local closure and process studies outlined in the ACE-1 Science and Implementation Plan,
3. Surface support for the aircraft Lagrangian experiments and column closure experiments. The ship will release balloons and tracers for the Lagrangian experiment,
|15-18 November||Depart Hobart, transit to Macquarie Island.|
|18-20 November||Sampling south of the subantarctic frontal zone, measurement intercomparison with Macquarie Island.|
|20-27 November||Sampling south of the subtropical front and southwest of Tasmania. Provide ground support for Lagrangian experiments.|
|27-30 November||Atmospheric sampling upwind of Cape Grim for measurement intercomparison with land and aircraft platforms.|
|01-07 December||Sampling south of the subtropical front and southwest of Tasmania. Provide ground support for Lagrangian experiments.|
|07-14 December||Sampling north of the subtropical front, west of Tasmania. Atmospheric sampling upwind of Cape Grim for second measurement intercomparison with land and aircraft platforms. Transit to Hobart.|
During Lagrangian support periods, constant density balloons will be filled and launched from Discoverer to mark an air mass. After the NCAR C-130 begins to follow this airmass, Discoverer will run downwind for 24 hours to sample surface seawater under the balloonís path. After 24 hours the ship will turn upwind and return to the Lagrangian starting point.
5.1 Equipment and capabilities to be provided by ship
The following systems and their associated support services are essential to the cruise. Sufficient consumables, back-up units, and on-site spare parts and technical support must be in place to assure that operational interruptions are minimal. All measurement instruments are expected to have current calibrations and all pertinent calibration information shall be included in the data package.
(a) Navigational systems including high resolution GPS.
(d) Thermosalinograph calibrated to within 0.1C and 0.01 ppt.
(e) Dry compressed air (100 psi, 2 CFM) to 2 vans (AL Van and Aerosol Van). Power, water and telephone connections to vans (see section 5.2).
(f) Continuously flowing seawater to the vans and shelter deck equilibrators (minimum of 100 liters per minute). Five water taps will be needed in the sampling line near the equilibrators.
(g) Laboratory/work space in met. lab, balloon shack, oceo lab, and plot room.
(h) Freezer space (30 cubic feet) for air and seawater samples. Samples will be preserved with glutaraldehyde, paraformaldehyde and acetone.
(i) SEAS XBT recording system and XBTs as required by the SEAS directive.
(j) Refrigerator space (10 cubic feet) for air samples (no chemicals).
(k) Access to shipís gyro ouput for satellite receiver.
(l) Pedestal mount for satellite antenna on top of forward mast.
(m) Space on the flying bridge for two vans (remove light from starboard pedestal, relocate bigeyes to centerline).
(n) Winch/meter wheel for net tows from starboard A-Frame.
1) Sulfur van (AL van)
|size||8' X 20'|
|power||30 amps 440 v three phase|
|location||port side F deck|
2) Aerosol van
|size||8' X 18'|
|power||50 amp 440 v three phase|
|location||G deck forward, port side|
This van will remain in this position until the ship returns to Seattle. It will be used during the CSP cruise.
|size||7' X 12'|
|power||from aerosol van|
|location||G deck forward, starboard side|
4) Spare parts/storage van,
|size||8' X 20'|
|size||10' x 10'|
|power||440 v, 10 amps|
|location||Flying bridge, starboard side|
Needs phone, fresh water
|size||8.5' x 6.8'|
|power||440 v, 60 amps|
|location||Flying Bridge, port side|
|size||8' x 20'|
|power||220 v, 60 amp|
|size||8' x 20'|
|power||440 v, 30 amp|
(c) Chemical analysis instrumentation including gas chromatographs, equilibrators, ion chromatographs, glove boxes, autoanalyzers, fluorometers, and pH meter.
(d) Chemical reagents, compressed gases (approximately 120 cylinders), and liquid nitrogen (200 liters). A complete listing of all chemicals to be brought onboard is included in Appendix C. Material Data Safety Sheets will be provided to ship before any chemicals are loaded.
(e) Aircraft radio to communicate with the NCAR C-130.
(f) Plankton net and internally logging fluorometer and irradiance meter (DU).
(g) Satellite antenna (NPGS).
6.1 Data responsibilities
The Chief Scientist is responsible for the disposition, feedback on data quality, and archiving of data and specimens collected on board the ship for the primary project. The Chief Scientist is also responsible for the dissemination of copies of these data to participants on the cruise and to any other requesters. The ship will assist in copying data and reports insofar as facilities allow. The ship will provide the Chief Scientist copies of the following data:
Sightings log (position and speed) of other vessels
Autosal salinity analysis logs
Weather observation sheets
Autosal calibration reports
Thermosalinograph calibration reports
CTD cast logs
CTD calibration reports
CTD data in ASCII format
The Chief Scientist will receive all original data gathered by the ship for the primary and piggy-back projects, and this data transfer will be documented on NOAA form 61-29 "Letter Transmitting Data". The Chief Scientist in turn will furnish the ship a complete inventory listing of all data gathered by the scientific party, detailing types and quantities of data.
The Commanding Officer is responsible for all data collected for ancillary projects until those data have been transferred to the projects' principal investigators or their designees. Data transfers will be documented on NOAA Form 61-29. Copies of ancillary project data will be provided to the Chief Scientist when requested. Reporting and sending copies of ancillary data to NESDIS (ROSCOP) is the responsibility of the program office sponsoring those projects.
6.2 Cruise report
The Commanding Officer is responsible for the preparation of the cruise report that is due at the Pacific Marine Center within 30 days of the completion of the cruise. The Chief Scientist will deliver his cruise evaluation to the Commanding Officer in time for inclusion in the overall cruise report.
6.3 Ship operation evaluation report
This report will be completed by the Chief Scientist and the Commanding Officer using the form provided for that purpose.
6.4 Foreign research clearance reports
A request for research clearance in foreign waters (Kiribati, Tokelau, Nieu, Cook Islands, New Zealand, Australia) has been submitted by PMEL. The Chief Scientist is responsible for satisfying the post-cruise obligations associated with diplomatic clearances to conduct research operations in foreign waters. These obligations consist of (1) submitting a "Preliminary Cruise Report" immediately following the completion of the cruise involving the research in foreign waters (due at ONCO within 30 days); and (2) ultimately meeting the commitments to submit data copies of the primary project to the host foreign countries.
Any additional work will be subordinate to the primary project and will be accomplished only with the concurrence of the Chief Scientist and Commanding Officer on a not-to-interfere basis.
The following ancillary projects will be conducted by ship's personnel in accordance with general instructions contained in the PMC OPORDER:
|(a) SEAS Data Collection and Transmission||(PMC OPORDER 1.2.1)|
|(b) Marine Mammal Reporting||(PMC OPORDER 1.2.2)|
|(c) Sea Turtle Observations||(SP-PMC-2-89)|
|(d) Bathymetric Trackline||(PMC OPORDER 1.2.5)|
7.1 Ancillary Global Drifter Project
The Global Drifter Center (GDC) is responsible for the deployment and maintenance of the Surface Velocity Program (SVP) drifter arrays. A part of that responsibility includes the examination of drifter life expectancy, and consequently the study of drifter failures.
The operating lifetime of SVP drifters has been greatly increased in the past through design changes determined by inspecting drifters recovered after a length of service. Recent design modifications include the addition of a barometric pressure sensor, which required additional batteries and gave rise to a slightly larger surface float. Eighty-one barometer drifters are being deployed in the Southern Ocean (deployment began in October 1994) and 110 more barometer drifters have been ordered, also for deployment in the Southern Ocean. The addition of barometric pressure sensors and the consequent design changes increases the need to recover several drifters for post-deployment inspections. Post-calibration is the only viable method to determine the stability of these sensors at sea.
Attempts will be made to recover SVP drifters if they are encountered in the ACE-1 operating area.
7.2 No other ancillary projects are assigned.
The Chief Scientist or his representative may have access to the ship's cellular and INMARSAT phones. During Leg I and II the chief scientist will communicate daily with the PMEL computer/internet system to upload and download mail files. During Leg II the chief scientist will communicate with the ACE operations center in Hobart at least twice a day to coordinate sampling on the various ACE-1 platforms. All official calls by the Chief Scientist will be charged to a UCAR purchase order with PMC that will be established for ACE operations. The anticipated INMARSAT costs of the ACE operational calls to and from the ship are between $10,000 and $15,000.
Material data safety sheets for all the chemicals used onboard will be provided to the ship before loading. Emergency eye washes will be located in each van using caustic chemicals.
Meals for scientific personnel will be charged at the rate of $7.50 per day. NOAA form 75-90, "Authorization of Mess Obligations", will be provided by the vessel to account for meals. The Chief Scientist will provide the appropriate accounting codes for NOAA funded scientists. Non-NOAA funded scientists will pay the ship directly at the end of each month.
Radio transmission can interfere with several of the continuous data streams. If this becomes a problem, the Commanding Officer and Chief Scientist will work out a transmission schedule to minimize data interferences to the extent that vessel communication needs allow.
(A) Cruise track
(C) List of chemicals onboard
(D) Van locations
Approval of instructions shall be acknowledged in writing.
RADM. John C. Albright, NOAA (date)
Pacific Marine Center
Dr. Eddie N. Bernard (date)
Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory
ACE-1 Cruise Plan
|30||DAYS||188.5||KGAL FUEL REQ'D|
|add one day to arrival time||184.0||RESERVE|
|for crossing date-line||372.5||TOTAL REQ'D|
|335.0||EST AT DEPART|
|carbon dioxide||2 tanks|
|balloon helium||50 tanks|
|air, nitrogen||20 tanks|
|standard air tanks||8 tanks|
|acetic acid||1 l|
|aluminum trioxide||150 g|
|ammonium chloride||500 g|
|boric acid||100 g|
|calcium sulfate (drierite)||5 kg|
|citric acid||1 kg|
|cupric sulfate||500 g|
|disodium EDTA||50 g|
|enzymes: catalase, horseradish peroxidase||200 mg|
|ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)||25 g|
|ethylene glycol||4 l|
|hayesep Q||75 g|
|hydrochloric acid||5 l|
|hydrogen peroxide||4 l|
|isopropyl alcohol||18 l|
|liquid nitrogen||200 l|
|magnesium perchlorate||2 kg|
|magnesium sulfate||200 g|
|mercuric chloride||5 g|
|methanesulfonic acid||2 kg|
|N-1-naphthyl-ethylenediamine dihydrochloride||16 g|
|nitric acid||500 ml|
|oxalic acid||5 g|
|paladium on alumina||20 g|
|paladium nitrate||1 g|
|pH buffer solution||20 l|
|1,10 phenanthroline||1 g|
|phosphoric acid||1 l|
|potassium carbonate||1.5 kg|
|potassium iodide||25 g|
|potassium iodate||25 g|
|potassium dihydrogen phosphate||2 kg|
|potassium hydrogen phosphate||2 kg|
|potassium hydroxide||1.5 l|
|potassium phosphate, monobasic||140 g|
|silica gel||1 kg|
|silver wool||1 g|
|sodium acetate||4 kg|
|sodium azide||5 g|
|sodium bicarbonate||2 kg|
|sodium carbonate||500 g|
|sodium citrate||2 kg|
|sodium hydroxide||1 kg|
|sodium hypoclorite||1 l|
|sodium iodide||25 g|
|sodium nitroprusside||10 g|
|sodium dihydrogen phosphate||2 kg|
|sodium hydrogen phosphate||2 kg|
|sodium sulfite||200 g|
|sulfuric acid||4 l|